Author Of 2 Presentations
SS02.06 - Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Multiple Sclerosis
Risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) begin to be identified from several cohort studies. Disease modifying therapies (DMTs) may modify the risk of developing a severe COVID-19 infection, beside identified risk factors such as age and comorbidities.
The objective was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and to identify the factors associated with COVID-19 severity.
This multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study (COVISEP registry, NCT04355611) included patients with MS presenting with a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and July 14, 2020. The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1: not hospitalized, no limitations on activities, to 7: death; cutoff at 3: hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen). We collected demographics, neurological history, Expanded Disability Severity Score (EDSS), comorbidities, COVID-19 characteristics and outcome. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of collected variables on COVID-19 outcome.
A total of 405 patients (mean age: 44.7 years, female/male: 293/112, mean disease duration: 13.4 years) were analyzed. Seventy-eight patients (19.3%) had a COVID-19 severity score ≥ 3, and 12 patients (3.0%) died from COVID-19. Median EDSS was 2.0 (range: 0-9.5), 326 patients (80.5%) were on DMT. There was a higher proportion of patients with COVID-19 severity score ≥ 3 among patients with no DMT relative to patients on DMTs (39.2% versus 14.4%, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression models determined that age (OR for 10 years: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.4), EDSS (OR for EDSS ≥ 6: 4.5, 95% CI: 2.0-10.0) were independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity score ≥ 3 (hospitalization or higher severity) while immunomodulatory treatment (interferon or glatiramer acetate) was associated with lower risk of COVID-19 severity score ≥ 3 (OR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.05-0.8). EDSS was associated with the highest variability of COVID-19 severe outcome (R2= 0.18), followed by age (R2= 0.06) and immunomodulatory treatment (R2= 0.02).
EDSS and age were independent risk factors of severe COVID-19, while exposure to immunomodulatory DMTs (interferon and glatiramer acetate) were independently associated with lower COVID-19 severity. We did not find an association between other DMTs exposure (including immunosuppressive therapies) and COVID-19 severity. The identification of these risk factors should provide the rationale for an individual strategy regarding clinical management of MS patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.
YI02.04 - Comparison of clinical characterization, risk of relapses and antibody dynamics between children and adults with MOGAD
- A. Cobo Calvo
- A. Ruiz
- F. Rollot
- G. Arrambide
- R. Deschamps
- E. Maillart
- C. Papeix
- B. Audoin
- A. Lépine
- H. Maurey
- H. Zephir
- D. Biotti
- J. Ciron
- F. Durand-Dubief
- N. Collongues
- X. Ayrignac
- P. Labauge
- P. Meyer
- E. Thouvenot
- B. Bourre
- A. Montcuquet
- M. Cohen
- P. Horellou
- M. Tintore
- J. De Seze
- S. Vukusic
- K. Deiva
- R. Marignier
To predict the clinical course of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody (Ab)-associated disease (MOGAD) is essential to guide treatment recommendations.
We aimed to 1) compare clinical features and disease course, and 2) to evaluate the association of MOG-Ab dynamics and relapses, between children and adults with MOGAD.
Retrospective study evaluating clinical features of 98 children and 266 adults with MOGAD, between January 2014 and September 2019. To analyse relapses over the whole disease course, a Cox regression analysis for recurrent time-to-event data was performed, introducing treatment as time-dependent covariate. To evaluate dynamics, delta mean fluorescence intensity ratio signal (ΔMFIratio) of MOG-Ab was measured in patients with a minimum time elapsed between two samples of 4 months.
Median age at onset of symptoms was 10.9 (interquartile range 5.4-14.3) years in children and 36.2 (27.7-47.6) in adults. Isolated optic neuritis was the most frequent clinical presentation both in children (40.8%) and adults (55.9%), p=0.013, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis syndrome was more frequent in children (36.7% vs. 5.6%; p<0.001). Compared to adults, children displayed a better recovery (EDSS ≥3.0 at last follow-up reached only by 10 of 97 [10.3%] vs. 66/247 [26.7%], p<0.001).
In the multivariate analysis, adults were at higher risk of relapse than children (Hazard ratio 1.41, 95%Confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.78; p=0.003). Among the 124 participants evaluated for MOG-Ab dynamics, 36.3% became seronegative, 60.5% decrease and 3.2% increase the ΔMFIratio. At two years, 64.2% (95%CI 40.9-86.5) of non-relapsing children became MOG-Ab negative compared to 14.1% (95%CI 4.7-38.3) of relapsing ones, log-rank p<0.001, with no differences observed between non-relapsing and relapsing adults, log-rank p=0.280.
MOGAD differs in its clinical presentation at onset, showing a progressive shift in the clinical features across age-groups. Compared to children, adults have a higher risk of relapses and a worse functional recovery. Finally, children with monophasic disease became MOG-Ab negative earlier than relapsing ones, but not in adults. Considering these differences, management and treatment guidelines should be considered independently in children and adults.
Author Of 4 Presentations
LB1222 - Outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with neuromyelitis optica and associated disorders (ID 2095)
Outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD), often treated with immunosuppressive therapies, are still unknown.
The objective was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with neuromyelitis optica and associated disorders and to identify the factors associated with COVID-19 severity.
We conducted a multi-center, retrospective, observational cohort study among all French expert centers for neuromyelitis optica and related disorders. Patients with NMOSD or MOGAD included in the study received a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and June 30th, 2020. Main outcome was COVID-19 severity score assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale ranging from 1 (not hospitalized with no limitations on activities) to 7 (death).
Fifteen cases (mean [SD] age: 39.3 [14.3] years, 11 female) were included. Five patients (33.3%) were hospitalized, all receiving rituximab. A 24-year-old patient with positive aquaporine-4 antibody, with obesity as comorbidity, needed mechanical ventilation. Outpatients were receiving anti-CD20 (5), mycophenolate mofetil (3) or azathioprine (3). They were younger (mean [SD] age: 37.0 [13.4] years), with a longer disease duration (mean [SD]: 8.3 [6.3] years) and had a lower EDSS score (median [range] EDSS: 2.5 [0-4]) relative to patients requiring hospitalization (mean [SD] age: 44.0 [16.4] years, mean [SD] disease duration: 5.8 [5.5] years, median [range] EDSS: 4 [0-6.5]).
COVID-19 outcome was overall favorable in this cohort. Larger international studies are needed to identify risk factors of severe COVID-19, however we recommend to maintain preventive measures to limit the risk of contamination with SARS-CoV-2 in this immunocompromised population.
P0193 - BEST-MS: A standardized and prospective study comparing the efficacy of natalizumab versus fingolimod in active relapsing multiple sclerosis (ID 237)
Therapeutic options are growing for active RRMS patients, however, few prospective studies are available to compare the efficacy of those treatments. Best Escalation Strategy in MS (BEST MS) started in France in 2013 when natalizumab (NTZ) and fingolimod (FTY) were the two most employed second-line therapies in active RRMS.
To compare the efficacy between natalizumab (NTZ) and fingolimod (FTY) in active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).
BEST-MS is a French prospective multicentric study.
Patients with active RRMS (defined as at least 1 relapse in the last 12 months on a well-conducted 1st line treatment with at least 9 T2 hyperintensities on MRI, OR at least 2 relapses in the last 12 months with evidence of active disease on MRI for naïve patients) were enrolled to be treated either with NTZ or FTY. Treatments choice was at the discretion of the physician.
Relapses, EDSS and brain MRI were collected at baseline and at 12 months.
The main outcome measure was the proportion of patients reaching No Evidence of Disease Activity (NEDA) at 12 months, defined as the absence of relapses, absence of new T2 lesions, absence of new gadolinium enhancing lesions and a stable EDSS score.
230 patients were included (age: 38.2 yrs, F/M: 3.1, FTY: 117, NTZ: 113). There was no statistical difference between groups regarding baseline characteristics.
Treatment drop out rate was higher in FTY group (22% vs 12%, p<0.0001) and most of thoses cases were related to a lack of efficacy.
At M12, 43% of patients treated with NTZ reached NEDA versus 27% in the FTY group (p=0.04)
NTZ indicated a better efficacy regarding new T2 lesions (0.7 vs 1.4, p=0.01) and gadolinium enhancing lesions (0.03 vs 0.5, p<0.0001).
Relapse rate (ARR) was lower in NTZ group (0.2 vs 0.27, p = 0.04), even if most relapses occurred during the first 4 months of treatment in both groups.
NTZ showed higher efficacy than FTY on MRI in active RRMS patients. ARR was also lower in favor of NTZ, but most relapses occurred early. However, the rate of drop out was higher for patients treated with FTY.
P0195 - Characteristics of Therapeutic Sequences of Patients Enrolled in the PRO-MSACTIVE Study Evaluating Ocrelizumab in Active Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis (ID 727)
At any time in multiple sclerosis (MS) management, a disease-modifying therapy (DMT) stop, restart or change can occur. In PRO-MSACTIVE (NCT03589105), an open-label, single-arm, phase IV study designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety and impact of ocrelizumab on patient reported outcomes in patients with active relapsing MS (RMS), every patient’s treatment history was gathered.
To describe the therapeutic management of French patients with active RMS (relapsing-remitting [RRMS] and secondary progressive [SPMS]), as reported at baseline, prior to the first ocrelizumab infusion (IV OCR).
PRO-MSACTIVE is being conducted in France (46 active centers) in patients with active RMS, ≥18 years old, naïve or pretreated with DMT. Washout periods between the last DMT taken by the patient and baseline IV OCR were pre-specified. For each patient, all previous DMTs were collected during the screening period, ≤4 weeks prior to baseline.
Treatment history was documented for the 422 enrolled patients: 376 RRMS and 46 SPMS. Most (74.9%) had at least one previous DMT prior to the first IV OCR: 73.9% for RRMS and 82.6% for SPMS patients. The longest therapeutic sequence includes 8 DMTs prior to the first IV OCR. The most frequent previous DMTs were β interferons and assimilated products (IFN-AP) (51.4% all patients, 49.2% RRMS, 69.6% SPMS); selective oral immunosuppressants (30.8% all patients, 30.6% RRMS, 32.6% SPMS; mainly fingolimod); and teriflunomide (24.2% all patients, 24.5% RRMS, 21.7% SPMS). IFN-AP ranked first among the older DMTs (46.5% all patients, 45.0% RRMS, 58.7% SPMS). Mean time (standard deviation, SD) from the oldest DMT to the first IV OCR was 6.55 yrs (5.44) for RRMS patients, and 14.20 yrs (8.46) for SPMS patients. The most recent DMTs prior to IV OCR were fingolimod (22.8% all patients, 23.7% RRMS, 15.2% SPMS); dimethyl fumarate (14.7% all patients, 15.7% RRMS, 6.5% SPMS); teriflunomide (14.5% all patients, 14.6% RRMS, 13.0% SPMS); IFN-AP (14.0% all patients, 14.1% RRMS, 13.0% SPMS); and natalizumab (4.3% all patients, 4.5% RRMS, 2.2% SPMS). Mean time (SD) from the most recent DMT to the first IV OCR was 2.65 yrs (2.12) for RRMS patients and 3.01 yrs (2.85) for SPMS patients.
Treatment history with DMTs prior to the first IV OCR is well characterized in the PRO-MSACTIVE study. These data permit a better understanding of the therapeutic strategies in RMS patients in current medical practice.
P0568 - Disappearance of spinal cord lesions in multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal study of 8
patients. (ID 119)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Up to 90% of MS patients have spinal cord hyperintensities seen on MRI. The spinal cord is one of four anatomical locations integrated into the 2017 McDonald diagnostic criteria, allowing spatial dissemination.
The main objective of this study is to describe a group of MS patients with disappearing of initial spinal cord lesions.
We performed a retrospective study of MS patients followed in Montpellier University Hospital between 2015 and 2019. All the patients with an acute partial transverse myelitis and no spinal cord lesion identified on follow-up MRI were recorded. MRI sequences were: Sagittal T1 TSE; Sagittal T1 TSE gado; Sagittal T2; Sagittal T2 TSE; T2 AX; Sagittal T2 STIR.
Among 2700 MS patients, 8 cases had initial spinal cord lesions, not found on serial MRI. Clinical features of these patients were: sex ratio F/M – 4:1; mean age of onset 32,8 (±17,3) years. At last clinical evaluation (duration of follow-up: 60,7 ±55,3 months) mean EDSS was 0.75 (±0,89). All the patients had cervical or dorsal acute partial transverse myelitis with dorsal and lateral localizations. On the control MRI, spinal cord hyperintensities were no longer present using sagittal and axial STIR and T2 sequences.
This study shows that spinal cord lesions can disappear over time. These features could be explained by transient demyelination, oedema without any demyelination. Since MR sequences were identical in all MS patients, false negative could be unlikely.