Author Of 1 Presentation
YI02.04 - Comparison of clinical characterization, risk of relapses and antibody dynamics between children and adults with MOGAD
- A. Cobo Calvo
- A. Ruiz
- F. Rollot
- G. Arrambide
- R. Deschamps
- E. Maillart
- C. Papeix
- B. Audoin
- A. Lépine
- H. Maurey
- H. Zephir
- D. Biotti
- J. Ciron
- F. Durand-Dubief
- N. Collongues
- X. Ayrignac
- P. Labauge
- P. Meyer
- E. Thouvenot
- B. Bourre
- A. Montcuquet
- M. Cohen
- P. Horellou
- M. Tintore
- J. De Seze
- S. Vukusic
- K. Deiva
- R. Marignier
To predict the clinical course of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody (Ab)-associated disease (MOGAD) is essential to guide treatment recommendations.
We aimed to 1) compare clinical features and disease course, and 2) to evaluate the association of MOG-Ab dynamics and relapses, between children and adults with MOGAD.
Retrospective study evaluating clinical features of 98 children and 266 adults with MOGAD, between January 2014 and September 2019. To analyse relapses over the whole disease course, a Cox regression analysis for recurrent time-to-event data was performed, introducing treatment as time-dependent covariate. To evaluate dynamics, delta mean fluorescence intensity ratio signal (ΔMFIratio) of MOG-Ab was measured in patients with a minimum time elapsed between two samples of 4 months.
Median age at onset of symptoms was 10.9 (interquartile range 5.4-14.3) years in children and 36.2 (27.7-47.6) in adults. Isolated optic neuritis was the most frequent clinical presentation both in children (40.8%) and adults (55.9%), p=0.013, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis syndrome was more frequent in children (36.7% vs. 5.6%; p<0.001). Compared to adults, children displayed a better recovery (EDSS ≥3.0 at last follow-up reached only by 10 of 97 [10.3%] vs. 66/247 [26.7%], p<0.001).
In the multivariate analysis, adults were at higher risk of relapse than children (Hazard ratio 1.41, 95%Confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.78; p=0.003). Among the 124 participants evaluated for MOG-Ab dynamics, 36.3% became seronegative, 60.5% decrease and 3.2% increase the ΔMFIratio. At two years, 64.2% (95%CI 40.9-86.5) of non-relapsing children became MOG-Ab negative compared to 14.1% (95%CI 4.7-38.3) of relapsing ones, log-rank p<0.001, with no differences observed between non-relapsing and relapsing adults, log-rank p=0.280.
MOGAD differs in its clinical presentation at onset, showing a progressive shift in the clinical features across age-groups. Compared to children, adults have a higher risk of relapses and a worse functional recovery. Finally, children with monophasic disease became MOG-Ab negative earlier than relapsing ones, but not in adults. Considering these differences, management and treatment guidelines should be considered independently in children and adults.
Author Of 2 Presentations
P0336 - Exposure to Natalizumab during pregnancy: A French national retrospective study (ID 890)
Pregnancy management in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) treated by Natalizumab (NTZ) is challenging because of the risk of disease reactivation after treatment discontinuation.
To compare clinical disease activity (annual relapse rate) during and after pregnancy among three therapeutic approaches: continuation of NTZ all along the pregnancy and the postpartum, discontinuation of NTZ in the second trimester and discontinuation of NTZ before pregnancy.
Data were collected from the French MS registry OFSEP (Observatoire Français de la Sclérose en Plaques). We included patients with relapsing-remitting MS who started a pregnancy between 6/2013 and 9/2018 while taking NTZ, or within six months after its suspension. 3 groups were compared : continuation of NTZ throughout pregnancy and postpartum (Group 1), 3 to 6 months of exposure to NTZ during pregnancy (Group 2) and suspension prior to pregnancy (Group 3). Annual relapse rate (ARR) during 2 years (9 months before and 15 months after preganncy onset) was the primaty outcome and effect on EDSS and MRI were secondary end-points.
The main analysis was performed using a negative binomial regression with the follow-up duration as the offset term. Univariate and multivariate anlyses after adjustment for baseline variables (age, EDSS, ARR in the year before starting NTZ, first-line patient on NTZ vs. second-line patient).
117 patients from 27 centers* were included. Baseline mean age was 31,5 y, median EDSS was 2.0 and mean duration of disease was 7,89 y. The mean ARR were respectively 0.078 +/- 0.24 in Group 1, 0.308 +/- 0.43 in Group 2 and 0.456 +/- 0.63 in Group 3 during the observation period and was significantly higher in Groups 2 and 3 as compared with ARR in Group 1 (p=0,007). The risk of relapses was 4 times higher in Group 2 versus Group 1 (p=0,014) and 6 times higher in Group 3 versus Group 1 (p=0,001).
Multivariate analyses did not show any effect of the adjustment variables.
Evaluation of safety outcomes on the mother and the fetus is in progress.
* Investigators: AR, JCO, CD, PB (Bordeaux), SD, BA, AR, AM, CB, JP (Marseille), MD, S Pitton (Nancy), JD (Strasbourg), TM (Dijon), JC, D Biotti (Toulouse), OC, M Vaillant (Grenoble),E Berger (Besançon), D Laplaud (Nantes), G Defer (Caen), I Patry (Corbeil-Essonnes), P Vermersch (Lille), P Labauge (Montpellier), O Bourre (Rouen), B Stankoff (Paris-Saint-Antoine), A Créange (Créteil), P Cabre (Fort-de-France), E Thouvenot (Nîmes), T De Broucker (Saint-Denis), C Papeix (Paris-Salpêtrière), P Clavelou (Clermont-Ferrand), O Gout (Paris-F.Rothschild), A Montcuquet (Limoges), C Lebrun (Nice), O Heinzlef (Poissy) N Maubeuge (Poitiers).
Continuation of Natalizumab during all three trimesters of pregnancy is associated with a lower risk of relapses as compared with discontinuation before the pregnancy or even during the second trimester.
Safety data is being collected.
P0876 - High and low efficacy therapy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis after accounting for therapeutic lag. (ID 760)
In secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), reduction in the rates of disability accrual after starting disease modifying therapy (DMT) has largely been limited to patients with ongoing inflammatory activity. A delayed treatment effect, termed therapeutic lag, may obscure therapeutic benefits in SPMS.
To compare the effect of high and low efficacy DMT on disability outcomes in patients with recently active and inactive SPMS after accounting for therapeutic lag.
Using data from MSBase, a multinational MS registry, and OFSEP, the French MS registry, we identified patients with SPMS as per a previously validated objective definition. We identified patients treated with high- (natalizumab, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone, ocrelizumab, rituximab, cladribine, fingolimod) or low-efficacy (interferons, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide) DMT after SPMS onset. Based on our previous work, an individualised estimate of duration of therapeutic lag was calculated for each patient. Only events that occurred after the estimated therapeutic lag period were included in the analysis. Propensity score matching was used to select groups with comparable baseline characteristics. Disability and relapse outcomes were compared in paired, pairwise-censored analyses adjusted for visit density.
Of 7359 patients with SPMS, 1000 patients fulfilled the criteria for study inclusion (510 active SPMS, 490 inactive SPMS). For the relapse outcomes, patients with active SPMS treated with high-efficacy DMTs experienced lower probabilities of relapses than low-efficacy DMTs (hazard ratio [HR] 0.7 [95%CI 0.5-0.9], p=0.006). Patients with inactive SPMS had similar probabilities of relapses in the high and low efficacy DMT groups (0.8 [0.6-1.2], p=0.39). No difference in the risk of 6-month sustained disability accumulation, or proportion of patients reaching EDSS>=7, was observed between groups when accounting for therapeutic lag.
The risk of disability accumulation in SPMS seems to be comparable in patients treated with high- and low- efficacy DMT. High efficacy DMT is superior to low efficacy therapy in reducing relapse activity in patients with active SPMS, but not those with inactive SPMS. Pre-treatment inflammatory activity, clinical or radiological, is a treatable target in SPMS which may benefit from higher-efficacy anti-inflammatory therapies.