University of the Witwatersrand
South African Medical Research Council Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytics Research Unit
Shabir Madhi is the Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences and Professor of Vaccinology at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. He also holds the position of Director of the South African Medical Research Council Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytics Research Unit (VIDA) and is co-Director of the African Leadership Initiative for Vaccinology Expertise (ALIVE). He is an internationally recognised for his research on vaccines against life threatening disease in childhood, in pregnant women and against respiratory diseases; which informed WHO recommendations on their use of these vaccines in low and middle income settings. Most recently he led the first two COVID-19 vaccine studies being undertaken in Africa, and has been involved in multiple epidemiological studies on Covid-19 in South Africa.

Moderator Of 2 Sessions

Meet-the-Expert Session 09: Results from the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) Network: What Really Causes Pneumonia Deaths?

Session Type
Meet-the-Expert Session
Date
Wed, 22.06.2022
Session Time
13:45 - 14:45
Room
Grand Ballroom West
Session Description
Understanding what causes pneumonia is important for knowing the best treatment and prevention measures, but etiology studies suffer because of the difficulty in obtaining specimens from the site of infection – inside the lung.
In this session, we will present findings and case studies on the etiology of pneumonia deaths from Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS), an ongoing program enrolling stillbirths and deaths in children <5 years of age in 7 countries in Africa and south Asia.
CHAMPS teams collect clinical information, verbal autopsy, and results of pathology and molecular examination of post-mortem specimens, including lung tissue. The results are surprising and may change how you think about pneumonia.

Please note: All MTE sessions are designed to encourage active learning and to concentrate on close interaction between audience and speakers. The MTE session organisers have provided at least 15 minutes for active discussions in their agenda.
Session Type
Plenary Session
Date
Thu, 23.06.2022
Session Time
08:00 - 09:30
Room
Grand Ballroom East
Session Description
Please note: Each presentation is followed by 5 to 10 minutes of Q&A. The audience is encouraged to send questions to the speakers from the beginning of their presentations. Q&A time is included in each speaker’s presentation duration, accounting for at least 25% active learning for the maximum registrants anticipated.

Presenter Of 2 Presentations

Pneumonia pathogenesis: Viral, bacterial, or both? (ID 926)

Session Type
Industry-Sponsored Symposium
Date
Mon, 20.06.2022
Session Time
12:45 - 13:45
Room
Grand Ballroom Centre
Lecture Time
12:50 - 13:05

O003 - STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ASSOCIATED CHILD MORTALITY IN THE PNEUMOCOCCAL CONJUGATE VACCINE ERA (ID 406)

Session Type
Parallel Session
Date
Mon, 20.06.2022
Session Time
15:20 - 16:35
Room
Grand Ballroom Centre
Lecture Time
15:45 - 15:55

Abstract

Background

The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) network aims to better understand child mortality causes through longitudinal surveillance and etiologic investigation of under-five deaths and stillbirths. Deaths enrolled in CHAMPS were examined to describe deaths attributed to pneumococcus by age group in seven surveillance sites all of which use pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV).

Methods

The CHAMPS protocol includes postmortem minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) with molecular, microbiologic, and histopathologic testing, clinical record review, and verbal autopsy. Underlying, co-morbid, and immediate causes of death (causal chain) are ascribed according to ICD-10 guidelines by local panels reviewing all data on each case.

Results

Pneumococcal diagnoses were in the causal chain for 6.2% (124/2012) of deaths, ranging from 0.5% (3/560) for stillbirths, 1.4% (12/838) for neonates, and 18.0% (109/614) for deaths from infants and children <5 years. Of these 124 pneumococcal-associated deaths, 88% (109) were deaths that occurred in the community or within 72 hours of hospitalization. Conditions in the causal chain included lower respiratory infections (87.1%), meningitis (14.3%), and sepsis (47.1%); many deaths had multiple conditions.

Conclusions

These findings support focus on preventing pneumococcal disease and associated child mortality, including assessing proportion of deaths due to vaccine serotypes and factors for under-immunization with PCV.

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