Brook A. Niemiec, DVM, DAVDC, DEVDC, FAVD
Southern California Veterinary Dental Specialties & Oral Surgery
San Diego, CA USA
Kymberley Stewart DVM
Toronto, ON, Canada
Orthodontic (bite) problems
Orthodontic problems may be purely cosmetic or can result in trauma to the lips, gums, palate, or teeth. By far, the most common cause of malocclusions is hereditary. Additional genetic causes include tongue size as well as lip and cheek tension.
These patients often do not show any overt clinical signs other than the jaws or teeth being out of alignment. Depending on the type and severity of the problem, oral trauma may be present and can result in bleeding, oral pain, gum disease, tooth death and even nasal infection.
Therapy for malocclusions is relative to type and severity of the disease process. Options include:
• No therapy (if purely cosmetic).
• Extraction of the offending tooth or teeth.
• Orthodontic correction using appliances.
• Lowering the tooth and then protecting the root canal (Coronal amputation and vital pulp therapy)
Persistent deciduous teeth
Persistent deciduous teeth are very common, especially in small and toy breed dogs. However, they can occur in any breed as well as cats. They create both orthodontic and periodontal problems if not treated promptly. It used to be believed that the persistent deciduous caused the permanent tooth to become malocclused. Studies have shown, however, that it is the permanent tooth erupting incorrectly that causes the deciduous to be persistent.
It has been reported that orthodontic problems begin within two weeks of the permanent canines starting to erupt. This is due to the deciduous tooth being in the place that the adult wishes to occupy.
The periodontal issues occur due to a disruption of the normal maturation of the periodontium. When there is a persistent deciduous tooth, one area of the periodontium is not attaching to the permanent, therefore the periodontal attachment in that location will not be normal. It has been reported that the damage begins within 48 hours of the permanent teeth starting to erupt!
Therefore, the adult tooth does not need to be completely erupted for these problems to occur, and they should be extracted as early as possible, do not wait until six months of age to perform the extractions along with neutering. In fact, we recommend that the owners of breeds prone to retain their teeth be instructed to watch for eruption of the permanent teeth and to present the patient for therapy as soon as this occurs.
The two main types of crown fracture seen in veterinary medicine are complicated and uncomplicated. Both types require therapy; however treatment for each is often different.
All teeth with direct pulp exposure (complicated crown fractures) should be treated with endodontic or exodontic therapy; ignoring them is NOT an option. Prior to tooth necrosis, the viable nerve is excruciatingly painful. Following tooth death, the root canal system will act as a bacterial super-highway creating not only local infection, but also a bacteraemia which has been linked to more serious systemic diseases (see the article on periodontal disease for further information). The owners of these patients will be reluctant to pursue therapy as “It does not seem to bother the dog”. Fractured and/or infected teeth do bother the pet and they will act better following therapy. Veterinary patients are known for being stoic, and therefore lack of outward signs of oral pain should not be misinterpreted as a benign state. Therefore, you must be a patient advocate and recommend therapy.
Uncomplicated crown fractures are also a very common finding on oral exam, particularly in large breed dogs. These fractures will result in direct dentinal exposure. The exposed dentinal tubules will create significant pain for the patient. The currently accepted means by which this sensitivity is created is via the theory of fluid dynamics. In addition, some of these teeth will become non-vital due to the traumatic incident, pulpal inflammation, or direct pulpal invasion via the dentinal tubules. For these reasons, it is recommended that these teeth be radiographed to ensure vitality. If the teeth are non-vital (evidenced by periapical rarefaction or a widened root canal) endodontic or exodontic therapy is required. If the teeth appear vital, the application of a bonded composite is recommended to decrease sensitivity.
Intrinsically stained teeth: Endodontic disease is also manifested by intrinsic staining. This can appear as pink, purple, yellow, or grey. A study by Hale showed that only 40% of intrinsically stained teeth had radiographic signs of endodontic disease, however 92.7% are non-vital. Non-vital teeth lose their natural defence ability and are often infected via the bloodstream, which is known as anachorisis. Therefore, do not rely on radiographic appearance to determine vitality; all teeth should be definitively treated via root canal therapy or extraction.
Enamel hypocalcification (hypoplasia)
Areas of enamel hypocalcification will generally appear stained a tan to dark brown (rarely black) color, and may appear pitted and rough. The tooth surface is hard however, as opposed to the soft/sticky surface of a caries lesion. The areas of weakened enamel are easily exfoliated which will expose the underlying dentin, resulting in staining. Dentin exposure will result in significant discomfort for the patient.
The roughness of the teeth will also result in increased plaque and calculus retention, which in turn leads to early onset of periodontal disease.
Treatment is aimed at removing sensitivity, avoiding endodontic infection by occluding the dentinal tubules, and smoothing the tooth to decrease plaque accumulation. The most efficient and effective way to accomplish these goals is placement of a bonded sealant or composite restoration.
Feline Tooth Resorption (TR):
The best diagnostic tool for differentiating between types is dental radiology. With type 1 lesions, there is no replacement of the lost root structure by bone, whereas with type 2 there is generally marked replacement of the lost tooth structure.
Type 1 TRs are typically associated with inflammation such as caudal stomatitis or periodontal disease. In these cases, it is thought that the soft tissue inflammation has activated the odontoclasts. Type 2 lesions are generally seen in otherwise healthy mouths; however the lesions will create local gingivitis. The etiology of type 2 TRs remains unproven.
Recently, crown amputation has been suggested as an acceptable treatment option for advanced type 2 lesions as it results in significantly less trauma and faster healing than complete extraction. This procedure, although widely accepted, is still controversial. Most veterinary dentists employ this technique, however in widely varying frequency. Veterinary dentists typically employ this treatment option only when there is significant or complete root replacement by bone. Unfortunately, the majority of general practitioners use this technique far too often. Crown amputation should only be performed on teeth with radiographically confirmed advanced type 2 TRs which show no peri-apical or periodontal bone loss. Crown amputation should not be performed on teeth with: type 1 TRs, radiographic or clinical evidence of endodontic or periodontal pathology, inflammation, or infection; or in patients with caudal stomatitis. Those practitioners without dental radiology capability SHOULD NOT perform crown amputation. In these cases, the teeth should either be fully extracted or the patient referred to a facility with dental radiology.
There are several reasons that teeth may be missing. These reasons include: congenitally missing, previously extracted, fractured (or extracted) with retained roots, or impacted. The first two scenarios do not require therapy, where as the latter two may necessitate intervention. Therefore, dental radiographs are indicated in all cases of “missing teeth”.
If dental radiographs reveal retained roots and evidence of inflammation or infection (clinical or radiographic), the teeth should be surgically extracted. If they are “quiet”, the owners should be informed and given the option of having the teeth surgically extracted.
Impactions occur most commonly in the maxillary cuspid and premolar teeth (especially PM1). They also occur most often in toy and small breeds as well as brachycephalic dogs.
These patients generally have no overt clinical signs other than a missing tooth in a young animal. Alternatively, there may be a persistent deciduous tooth present.
On occasion, an unerupted tooth may lead to the development of a dentigerous cyst. Pathologic changes were noted in 29% of cases in one veterinary study. Consequently, the presenting complaint or oral examination finding may be a swelling in the area of a “missing” tooth.
A dentigerous cyst is a fluid filled structure which develops from the enamel forming organ, of an unerupted tooth. Small dentigerous cysts are generally asymptomatic, and often go undiagnosed without dental radiology. Dentigerous cysts can become quite large and disfiguring, requiring major surgical correction. Dental radiographs are generally diagnostic, revealing a unilocular radiolucent area that is associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth.
Surgical removal of the offending tooth and careful debridement of the cystic lining will prove curative. It is important to avoid leaving any of the cystic lining behind, as this could allow the cyst to reform. Early surgical intervention will result in the least invasive surgery possible.