Author Of 1 Presentation
P0053 - Correlation Between Spinal Fluid and Blood Levels of Neurofilament Light, GFAP, Tau, and UCHL1: Do We Need a Correction Factor? (ID 1942)
Plasma neurofilament light(pNFL) levels account for 30-60% of the variance in CSF neurofilament light(cNFL) levels depending on the study. Age, disability, relapses, and the presence of contrast enhancing MRI lesions can increase both pNFL and cNFL. Additional nervous system biomarkers can now be studied in plasma. Understanding the factors that increase their variability in blood may be helpful in normalizing levels to better understand what levels are concerning for ongoing disease activity.
To evaluate factors contributing to blood and cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) discordance and determine if a correction of blood levels can better estimate what is happening in the CSF compartment.
Matched plasma and CSF samples were identified in the Rocky Mountain Multiple Sclerosis Center Biorepository at the University of Colorado. Neurofilament Light(NFL), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein(GFAP), tau, and Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1(UCHL1) levels were assessed using Single Molecule Array(SIMOA) in a Quanterix SR-X machine. Analyses were done on log transformed NFL concentrations.
Fifty-seven patients had matched plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples evaluated for neurofilament light which included 24 patients with multiple sclerosis(MS), 7 with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder(NMOSD), and 18 patients with headache whose opening pressures were <20cmH2O. These patients had a mean age of 46.5(+/-11.2) years, 75% female, mean albumin index of 6.3(+/-5.5), and BMI of 27.4(+/-5.8). The CSF and plasma concentrations in pg/ml were for NFL 1059.3(+/-3052.4) and 12.2(+/-32.4), GFAP 7621.5(+/-9713.4) and 52.9(+/-39.7), tau 41.5(+/-41.3) and 1.3(+/-0.8), UCHL1 1356.0(+/-1677.1) and 23.6(+/-32.8). Respectively the CSF vs plasma Spearman correlations (95% confidence intervals, p values) were: 0.79(0.67-0.87,<0.0001), 0.67(0.50-0.79,<0.0001), 0.75(0.61-0.85,<0.0001), and 0.70(0.54-0.81,<0.0001). Adjusting individually for age, BMI, or albumin index did not affect the correlation for NFL.
Blood and CSF levels of NFL, GFAP, tau, and UCHL1 correlated well. Models will be created that explore the relationship between Blood and CSF levels of these biomarkers.
Presenter Of 1 Presentation
P0111 - Monitoring Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Plasma Biomarkers: NfL, GFAP, UCH-L1, and Tau (ID 909)
Blood neurofilament light (NfL) levels have been linked to multiple sclerosis (MS) activity and progression but are affected by factors such as age and body mass index (BMI). Less is known about what factors affect blood levels of Glial Fibrillary Acid Protein (GFAP), Ubiquitin Carboxy-Terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), and Tau. Single Molecule Array (SIMOA) platforms allow multiplex measurement of these biomarkers with high sensitivity.
To evaluate factors associated with higher levels of four plasma biomarkers—NfL, GFAP, UCH-L1, and Tau—in individuals with MS on immunotherapy.
Subjects with MS between 18-65 years taking dimethyl fumarate (n=40), fingolimod (n=37), natalizumab (n=47), or rituximab (n=90) for at least 1 year were identified from Rocky Mountain MS Center Biorepository. Neuro 4-plex A plasma assays were conducted on the Quanterix SR-X SIMOA platform. Biomarker concentrations were log transformed. For each biomarker, summary statistics were generated, and logistic regressions on the probability of having a level in the top quartile, adjusting for age, were performed with different explanatory variables including gender, BMI, disease duration, length on disease modifying therapy (DMT), DMT type, and MS subtype (relapsing MS [RMS] or progressive MS [PMS]). All statistics were generated in SAS.
Included were 214 subjects (194 RMS, 20 PMS; 70.3% female; 86.9% Caucasian) with mean age of 44.1(SD 9.8). Mean disease and treatment durations were 150.7(SD 95.7) and 49.7(SD 33.5) months, respectively. Means (IQR) for NfL, GFAP, UCH-L1 and Tau were 6.6(3.9-7.1), 66.9(45.5-81.4), 11.5(7.1-13.8), and 1.2(0.8-1.5) pg/ml, respectively. NfL, GFAP, and UCH-L1 increased with age. (Remainder of results are given age-adjusted.) PMS was more likely than RMS to be in the top quartile for NfL (OR 3.5,p=0.01), GFAP (OR 2.6,p=0.06), and UCH-L1 (OR 2.8,p=0.04). Longer disease duration (5 years) increased the likelihood of elevated NfL (OR 1.3,p=0.02) and elevated GFAP (OR 1.3,p=0.03). Higher BMI (5 units) decreased the likelihood of elevated NfL (OR 0.6,p=0.0007) and GFAP (OR 0.8,p=0.03) but increased the likelihood of having an elevated Tau (OR 1.4,p=0.002). Ethnicity and treatment duration had no effect, but men were more likely to have elevated UCH-L1 (OR 2.1,p=0.03) and lower Tau (OR 0.2,p=0.0004). Comparing DMTs, no biomarker differences were observed except subjects on rituximab and dimethyl fumarate were less likely to have elevated Tau.
Plasma NfL, GFAP, and UCH-L1 are promising biomarkers to differentiate relapsing from progressive MS. Age and BMI should be incorporated into biomarker models to determine normal thresholds. No differences were observed between treatments for NFL, GFAP, or UCH-L1, but subjects on dimethyl fumarate and rituximab were less likely to have elevated Tau. Lack of randomization or repeated measures limited comparative effectiveness analyses.