Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody associated disease (MOG-AD) are orphan diseases with high impact on quality of life and to date unknown socio-economic burden.
The aim of this study was to evaluate costs and health-related quality of life of NMOSD and MOG-AD from the societal perspective.
In a multicenter cross-sectional study throughout Germany between 04/2017 and 04/2019, the primary data on retrospective consumption of medical and non-medical resources and work ability related to NMOSD and MOG-AD were assessed via standardized and pre-tested paper-based patient questionnaires. Health-related quality of life was captured by the EuroQoL Group EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. Clinical data were retrieved from the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS) database. Patient recruitment took place at 17 German NEMOS centers. Costs were analyzed in EUR for 2018.
During the recruitment period, 218 of 275 adult patients were screened for eligibility. 212 patients (80.2% women; mean age 49 ± SD 15 years; mean disease duration 9 ± SD 8.5 years; Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 3.7 ± SD 2.1) were analyzed. The mean total annual per capita cost of illness accounted for EUR 59 576 and the mean index value of the EQ-5D-5L was 0.693. Given an estimated prevalence of NMOSD in Germany of 1.3/100 000, the annual burden from the societal perspective adds to EUR 64.3 Mio for Germany. The most important cost drivers were informal care costs (27.6% of total costs), indirect costs (23.3%; particularly loss of salary) and drugs, especially immunotherapeutics (16.4%). Costs showed a significant positive correlation with disease severity (p<0.0001); in the EDSS 6.5-8.5 subgroup the annual costs were EUR 129 436. Moreover, the health-related quality of life revealed a negative correlation with disease severity (p<0.0001); in the EDSS 6.5-8.5 subgroup the mean index value was 0.195.
These German data from the era without approved standard medications show enormous effects of the disease on costs and quality of life and might be helpful for estimating the impact and cost-effectiveness of new therapeutic approaches.