FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VACCINE TYPE PNEUMOCOCCAL CARRIAGE IN CHILDREN UNDER 2 YEARS OF AGE IN A RURAL POPULATION IN PAKISTAN
Pneumococcal carriage is a prerequisite for disease with children being the main reservoir and transmitters. Here, we look at factors associated with Vaccine type (VT) carriage in children under 2 years of age in a rural population in Pakistan.
Children were enrolled and nasopharyngeal swabs collected using standard WHO guidelines. Serotyping was done using CDC standardized Multiplex PCR. The serotypes were classified as vaccine type (VT) and non-vaccine type (NVT) based on their inclusion in the ten valent vaccine (PCV10).
From 2014-2018, 3140 children were enrolled. Factors negatively associated with VT carriage were: primary education of 1 to 5 years (aOR 0·7, 95%CI 0·5-0·9), history of difficulty in breathing (aOR 0·7, 95%CI 0·6-0·9), exposure to smoke (aOR 0·8, 95% CI 0·6-0·9), child fully immunized (aOR 0·7, 95%CI 0·5-0·9) and being enrolled in 3rd (aOR 0·6, 95%CI 0·4-0·8) and 4th year of study (aOR 0·6, 95%CI 0·5-0·9) whereas history of runny nose was positively associated (aOR 1·6, 95% CI 1·2-1·9).
Various socio-demographic and clinical factors were associated with VT carriage. A child having received all three doses of PCV10 significantly reduced the odds of carrying a VT serotype.