Welcome to the WCN 2021 Interactive Program

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    Please note that all sessions will run at their scheduled time and be followed by a LIVE Q&A/Discussion at the end

     The viewing of sessions, cannot be accessed from this conference calendar. All sessions are accessible via the Virtual Platform

Displaying One Session

Free Communication
Session Time
11:30 - 13:00
Room
Free Communication C
Chair(s)
  • Masud Husain (United Kingdom)
Free Communication

NEURAL CORRELATES OF A MINDFULNESS PRACTICE- A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

Session Type
Free Communication
Date
03.10.2021, Sunday
Session Time
11:30 - 13:00
Room
Free Communication C
Lecture Time
11:30 - 11:40
Presenter
  • Radhika S. Lotlikar (India)

Abstract

Background and Aims:

Mindfulness meditation practice in relation to the resting-state of the brain remain under-explored in terms of its neural correlates. Potential of task positive and task negative functional MRI(fMRI) to delineate the cortical correlates coupled with mindfulness meditation can help to demonstrate its utility in improving cognition and introspective awareness.

Methods:

Our study included 24 healthy participants(12 mindfulness meditation practitioners and 12 meditation-naive controls) on whom resting-state and task based fMRI studies were conducted using 3T MRI. Seed-based connectivity network analysis was carried out with known resting-state fMRI(rs-fMRI) network nodes as regions of interest (ROI). Analysis of Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation coupled with mindfulness meditation based fMRI task featured ‘normal resting’, ‘mindful body awareness’ and ‘mindful breath awareness’ tasks. Differences in resting-state connectivity networks and neural correlates on meditation task-based fMRI (t-fMRI) were evaluated between practitioners and controls.

Results:

fig2.pngfig3.pngrs-fMRI revealed note-worthy differences between meditation practitioners and control group in the connectivity of medial prefrontal cortex and right anterior insula for p < 0.05, FDR corrected at cluster level and p < 0.001, uncorrected at voxel level with seed based ROI to ROI networks. The t-fMRI revealed increased BOLD activation for practitioners compared to controls (p < 0.05) over bilateral insula, anterior cingulate gyri, thalami and left putamen during mindful breath awareness task; right insula and right inferior parietal lobule showed maximal activation during mindful body awareness task.

Conclusions:

Mindfulness meditation has the potential to activate neural correlates coupled with cognition, attention and introspection, thus mediating interoceptive awareness and focused attention.

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Free Communication

EFFECT OF CHILDHOOD TRAUMA ON DEPRESSION: A MODERATED MEDIATING ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN BILATERAL POSTERIOR CINGULATE GYRUS

Session Type
Free Communication
Date
03.10.2021, Sunday
Session Time
11:30 - 13:00
Room
Free Communication C
Lecture Time
11:40 - 11:50
Presenter
  • Suzhen Chen (China)

Abstract

Background and Aims:

Brain functions and social support (SS) both influence the relationship between childhood trauma (CT) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we investigated the effects of SS and brain functions on this relationship and tried to build a model composed of indictors of CT, SS, and brain functions to aid the diagnosis of MDD.

Methods:

Resting-state fMRI and clinical data from 102 MDD and 36 healthy controls (HC) were collected. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and functional connectivity (FC) analysis were analyzed between the two groups. Modulated mediation analysis was applied to investigate the relationship among CT, SS, FC, and MDD. A logistic regression model was built, and its classification capability was tested by ROC curve.

Results:

Compared to HC, MDD suffered more CT, and less SS. Decreased ALFF in bilateral posterior cingulate (PCG) and left postcentral/precentral gyrus (lPoCG/PrCG), lower bilateral PCG connectivity, and lower FC of lPoCG/PrCG to bilateral PoCG/PrCG and superior/middle temporal gyrus were observed in MDD. SS mediated the relationship between CT and depressive symptoms in individuals, while bilateral PCG connectivity modulated this relationship simultaneously. The logistic regression model, which integrated CT, SS, and brain functional indicators, showed more excellent effect for differentiating MDD from HC (area under the ROC curve = 0.95, accuracy = 88.4%).

Conclusions:

SS and bilateral PCG connectivity, as the mediator and modulator, affected this relationship between CT and MDD and is essential for predicting the future occurrence and degree of depression after CT. Combining CT, SS and brain functions could distinguish MDD from HC well.

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Free Communication

PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AMONG SUDANESE PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE ATTENDING DAOUD CHARITY CLINIC IN 2020-2021.

Session Type
Free Communication
Date
03.10.2021, Sunday
Session Time
11:30 - 13:00
Room
Free Communication C
Lecture Time
11:50 - 12:00
Presenter
  • Khabab A. Mohamed Ahmed (Sudan)

Abstract

Background and Aims:

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, after Alzheimer’s disease. The most common psychological problem that affects those with Parkinson’s disease is depression. Depression is a period of two weeks or longer during which there is either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure. Objectives: To determine the prevalence rate of depression and associated symptoms among Sudanese Parkinson’s patients.

Methods:

A descriptive cross sectional clinic based study during the period of January 2020 to January 2021. Data was collected using Hamilton depression rating scale via trained doctors on interview based clinic setting with full medical history and physical examination.

Results:

This study includes 35 patients with Parkinson disease 25 (71, 4%) were male and 10 (28, 6%) were female. The most common age of the patients ranges from 61 to 70years (34, 5%). the frequency of depression among the patients was (59,97%) the, (37,1%) with mild depression (17,1%) moderate and (5,7%) with severe depression and (5,7%). felling by guilt of is (34,3%) self-reproach (14,3%) and deas of guilt (11,4%). (25,7%) of the patients had delayed insomnia and walking in early hours of the morning and unable fall in the sleep again. (45,7%) of the patients had psychiatric and anxiety symptoms (28,6%) had tension and irritability. (48,6%) of the patients had a weight loss.(28,6%) had a loss of insight.

Conclusions:

Depression is higher in patients with higher age group and higher in males than females. Depression is higher at the beginning of the disease and decrease with increased duration of the disease.

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Free Communication

SPATIOTEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF HUMAN ATTENTION REVEALED BY INTRACEREBRAL RECORDING

Session Type
Free Communication
Date
03.10.2021, Sunday
Session Time
11:30 - 13:00
Room
Free Communication C
Lecture Time
12:00 - 12:10
Presenter
  • Tal Seidel Malkinson (France)

Abstract

Background and Aims:

Exogenous attention makes external stimuli “pop-out” of the visual scene and is essential for survival. Frontoparietal attention networks control these processes, with hemispheric asymmetries favoring the right hemisphere. Dysfunction in these networks often provokes signs of spatial neglect, with impaired exogenous attention and dramatic clinical consequences. Our understanding of neglect is hampered by limited knowledge of the functioning of these networks in the normal human brain: Hemodynamic neuroimaging has insufficient temporal resolution for processes occurring in the millisecond range, and human neurophysiological recordings have limited spatial resolution.

Methods:

We analyzed brain activity from 28 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, with a total of 1,403 intracortical contacts, while they responded to visual targets preceded by non-predictive attentional cues, which engage exogenous spatial attention. High-frequency broadband power (55-145Hz; HFBB) was recorded from each contact. Target-locked mean normalized HFBB activity was extracted for each contact in the eight experimental conditions (2x2x2 design: SOA x Congruence x Ipsilateral/Contralateral target related to contact).

Results:

Using a novel spatio-temporal clustering method, we identified three distinct brain clusters: an early visual cluster; an intermediate, predominantly right-hemisphere temporoparietal-prefrontal cluster, sensitive to attentional effects; a late, predominantly left-hemisphere temporoparietal-prefrontal cluster, sensitive to response-requiring targets. These clusters mapped onto a cortical core-periphery gradient. Attentional effects emerged at the gradients’ center, where both visual input and motor output shaped neural activity.

Conclusions:

These results reveal how large-scale neural ensembles, embedded in the cortical hierarchy, underlie the psychological construct of exogenous attention in the human brain, and its dysfunctions in neurological patients with spatial neglect.

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Free Communication

LINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF APHASIA: A COMPUTER-ASSISTED QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS THROUGH T-LAB

Session Type
Free Communication
Date
03.10.2021, Sunday
Session Time
11:30 - 13:00
Room
Free Communication C
Lecture Time
12:10 - 12:20
Presenter
  • Sonia Di Tella (Italy)

Abstract

Background and Aims:

Aphasic disorders may be observed both in patients with vascular and neurodegenerative pathology. Although spontaneous speech in the various forms of aphasia has some features identifiable on a purely linguistic level, the diagnosis of type of aphasia critically relies on the support of clinical and neuroimaging data. To identify some core characteristics of different types of fluent aphasias in patients’ spontaneous speech based on computer assisted qualitative analyses through T-LAB, a mixed-method software which allows -through linguistic, statistical, and graphical tools- to explore narratives highlighting their key features.

Methods:

We collected samples of spontaneous speech (narratives) by thirty-four fluent aphasic Italian speakers (11post-stroke aphasic patients (psPPA), 17 with the logopenic variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia (lvPPA) and 6 with the semantic variant (svPPA) during the description of the Cookie Theft Picture of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. Thirty-four healthy control subjects (HC) were asked to complete the same task. The analyses of the whole corpus (all the narratives), specific metadata introduction and tagging were performed by two raters and any conflict solved by a third rater.

Results:

Analysis by T-LAB revealed statistically significant differences both between aphasic patients and HC, and between vascular and degenerative patients. Although the main distinction emerged between post stroke and neurodegenerative aphasias, important differences also emerged between the svPPA and the lvPPA.

Conclusions:

These findings underline the potential usefulness of a computer assisted analysis of speech production to identify the core linguistic characteristics of different aphasic disorders, independently of any clinical support.

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Free Communication

THEORY OF MIND: A CLUE TO FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT DISORDERS DIAGNOSIS

Session Type
Free Communication
Date
03.10.2021, Sunday
Session Time
11:30 - 13:00
Room
Free Communication C
Lecture Time
12:20 - 12:30
Presenter
  • Sonia Di Tella (Italy)

Abstract

Background and Aims:

Functional movement disorders (FMD) are a group of manifestations that are incongruent with known neurological diseases, interpreted as conversion disorders. Abnormal activation has been documented in regions crucial for the elaboration of social cognition aspects, such as Theory of Mind (ToM). ToM defines the ability to attribute mental states to ourselves and others that allows us to understand others’ motivation in generating actions during social interaction. We hypothesized that ToM disorders which result in reduced ability to make inferences about others’ mental states, might underlie FMD.

Methods:

Eighteen subjects with FMD and 28 matched healthy controls (HC) were given First- and Second-Order False Beliefs, the Faux-Pas Recognition Test and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET). Subjects were also administered the DES-II questionnaire for measuring dissociative symptoms. The severity of FMD was rated with the Simplified-FMD Rating Scale (S-FMDRS).

Results:

HC scored better than the FMD group on Second-Order False Beliefs, RMET and Faux Pas Recognition Test. The mean score of the FMD group on the DES-II Scale was 20.00 (range 1.79-72.14), which indicates borderline personality disorders. No correlation emerged between S-FMDRS and any measure of ToM ability or the DES-II scale.

Conclusions:

ToM disorder might underlie FMD as expression of the inability to read the intention of the other individuals in motor behaviour. Reduced scores on the DES-II scale suggest that FMD might also originate from the inability to read one’s own mental state. FMD could represent an experimental model for understanding the relationship between 'organic' and functional manifestations.

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Free Communication

EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM MEDITATION ON COGNITION, ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AND VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS DERIVED BRAIN DYNAMICS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

Session Type
Free Communication
Date
03.10.2021, Sunday
Session Time
11:30 - 13:00
Room
Free Communication C
Lecture Time
12:30 - 12:40
Presenter
  • Kumarangie K. Vithanage (Sri Lanka)

Abstract

Background and Aims:

We compared EEG and VEP wave patterns, and measures of cognition of long-term meditators (LTM) with non-meditators (NM) to assess cerebral effects of meditation

Methods:

Ten experienced LTM (regular practice of >3 years) were selected using a validated intake-interview. Ten matched NM were recruited from the community. All had a Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) score of >26/30. A validated Sinhala-version of the repeatable battery (RBANS) was used to assess cognition. Using 10-20 system, EEG was recorded with one-minute eyes-closed followed by 19 minutes of meditation among LTM while in controls, total 20 minutes of EEG recording was in an eyes-closed relaxed state. EEG wave frequencies in both groups were analyzed from four regions: F7-T3, T5-O1, F8-T4, T6-O2. Latencies for N75, P100, N145 were measured on VEP

Results:

The mean score of RBANS among LTM (mean age 39.78; SD=9.27 years) was 440.8;SD=109.4 while among NM (mean age 40.44; SD=8.39 years) it was 331.2;SD=101.91 (p=0.139). Cognitive scores were higher among LTM compared to the NM: immediate memory, LTM=45.44±SD, NM=36.13±SD (p=0.09); visuospatial, LTM=37.78±SD, NM=28±SD (p=0.013); language, LTM=39.67±SD, NM=35.13±SD (p=0.08); attention, LTM=67.22±SD, NM=60.63±SD (p=0.39); delayed memory, LTM=54.78±SD, NM=47.13±SD (p=0.019).

In EEG, higher percentage of alpha activity was observed among LTM (25.31%) compared to NM (7.75%)(p=0.001) in all the EEG regions. N75 latencies were reduced among LTM (p=0.02) but P100 and N145 did not significantly differ between LTM and NM

Conclusions:

Long-term meditation enhances all cognitive domains, particularly visuospatial and delayed memory and produces measurable changes in EEG frequencies and in VEP.

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Free Communication

SERIAL CASE OF HIV ASSOCIATED NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDER

Session Type
Free Communication
Date
03.10.2021, Sunday
Session Time
11:30 - 13:00
Room
Free Communication C
Lecture Time
12:40 - 12:50
Presenter
  • Nurvia Andriani (Indonesia)

Abstract

Background and Aims:

HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) divides into three severity categories, which include asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). This case report aims to present and compare the serial case of two patients' clinical manifestations that are diagnosed and treated for HAND.

Methods:

This is a prospective serial case of two patients. A 23-year-old male came with complaints of frequent senility and mild headache. He is diagnosed with HIV infection with CD4 9 Cell/µL and cerebral toxoplasmosis. Head MRI results show a solitary lesion in the right lentiform nucleus and right external capsule exemplify cerebral toxoplasmosis. Neuropsychological test results, there are dysfunctions of attention, language, and visuospatial domains without daily activity dysfunction with International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) 10. The second patient was a 33-year-old male who came with complaints of frequent senility and oculomotor nerve dysfunction. He is diagnosed with HIV infection with CD4 103 Cell/µL, and cerebral toxoplasmosis. Head MRI results show multiple bilateral frontotemporooccipital intraaxial lesions with suspected cerebral toxoplasmosis. Neuropsychological test results, there are dysfunctions of attention, language, and executive domains without daily activity dysfunction with IHDS 10.

Results:

In both cases, patients diagnosed with HAND with asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment.

Conclusions:

HAND is a rare manifestation of HIV infection. In this case, HAND with ANI due to HIV infection is suspected by patients' risk factors and major HIV-associated CNS disorders. Neuropsychological tests, primarily IHDS may help make a differential diagnosis.

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Free Communication

LIVE Q&A

Session Type
Free Communication
Date
03.10.2021, Sunday
Session Time
11:30 - 13:00
Room
Free Communication C
Lecture Time
12:50 - 13:00