Welcome to the WCN 2021 Interactive Program
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Please note that all sessions will run at their scheduled time and be followed by a LIVE Q&A/Discussion at the end
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- Teresita Corona (Mexico)
PRION DISEASES, ALWAYS A THREAT?
- Hideheiro Misuzawa (Japan)
Prion disease is caused by prion which was identified as a causative factor of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and means proteineaceous infectious particle. Prion diseases are devastating neurodegenerative disorders of human and many animals including sheep, cows, deer, cats and camels. CJD presents usually as a rapidly progressive dementia with other symptoms inevitably resulting in death often in months with no available therapy. Like other neurodegenerative diseases, prion diseases are classified into sporadic and genetic forms. In addition, there is the third category of environmentally acquired form. This type includes kuru and iatrogenic CJD due to human dura mater grafts or human pituitary derived hormones as well as variant CJD transmitted through food contaminated with prion of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). BSE and variant CJD has been almost controlled but chronic wasting disease, prion disease of deer, is spreading widely in North America and South Korea and recently in northern Europe.
Recently Aß, α-synuclein and other proteins related to Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other diseases were reported to have prion features such as transmission to animals. Aß transmission to human was suggested in iatrogenic CJD cases as well as in cerebral amyloid angiopathy cases with cerebral bleeding long after childhood neurosurgery with or without cadaveric dura.
These findings indicate prion diseases due to various prions, namely various transmissible proteins appear to be a threat particularly in this longevity society. To overcome prion diseases is one of the top priority in our society.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND MS
- Teresita Corona (Mexico)
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND MS
Dra. Teresita Corona
Long term exposure to air-bone particular matter has been linked with the development of a broad spectrum of health conditions with neurodegenerative diseases. Litle is know about the effect air population on the prevalence of MS, nevertheless, there are new evidences about genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors influencing MS. External factors including hormones, vitamin D, smoking, bioactive molecule, pollution and infections, among other can trigger epigenetic mechanisms, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration
Some clinical studies found two-fold prevalence of MS in a high-polluted city in comparison toa coastal city (Turkey). Conversely, two large cohort studies failed to find and significant association (US). Other study did not find any association between PM and the risk of MS admissions (Spain). A study in France found that MS relapses increased was associated with PM10 during the cold seasons. A study in Italy found a 43% increase I MS admissions on the days precede by one week with PM 10 levels in the highest quartile. These finding also replicated in Serbia. High air pollution index during so called “low vitamin D season”.
Mexico City epidemiological data can offer some insight not only the impact of air pollution on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease and MS. Geographical reasons such as altitude preventing proper burning of fuels, being located at a tropical latitude within a valley surrounded by mountains makes the city more prone to air pollution.
FOOD AND NUTRITION-RELATED DISEASE
- Peter Spencer (United States of America)
Plants and fungi used by humans for food represent complex mixtures of chemicals, some of which have dose-dependent neurotoxic potential that may trigger acute, delayed or long-latency neurological disease. Whether or how botanical chemicals trigger nervous system disorders, including their participation in sporadic neurodegenerative diseases, is a growing area of research interest in environmental neurology. Acute-onset disorders include hypoglycemic encephalopathy induced in hungry children who ingest immature fruit of the Soapberry family (Sapindaceae), notably lychee (Litchi sinenesis) in Asia or ackee (Blighia sapida) in the Caribbean and West Africa. Acute presentation of leg weakness in the setting of motor exercise often heralds the self-limiting but chronic upper motor neuron disorders of endemic lathyrism (Lathyrus sativus) and cassavism (Manihot esculenta), both of which feature degrees of spastic paraparesis among such plant-dependent populations of India and sub-Saharan Africa. Prolonged consumption of soursop fruit (Annona muricata) is linked to atypical parkinsonism in Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Chinese children who ingest sugarcane contaminated with Arthrinium mold may develop lifelong dystonia. Use for food of seed of acutely poisonous cycad plants (Cycas micronesica) has been linked etiologically to the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex on Guam. Food use of poisonous False Morel mushrooms (Verpa bohemica, Gyromitra gigas), which contain genotoxic chemicals related to those derived from cycads, cause not only acute, reversible brain dysfunction but also have been implicated in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the French Alps. Nutritional history is therefore relevant to the analysis of diverse sporadic neurological disorders.