Sustainable mobility is a new paradigm to understand the complex link between transportation systems and cities, mobility and society. The focus is on envisioning future sustainable cites, understanding transportation systems as human-scaled spaces and promoting multimodal transportation (sustainable mix of walking, cycling and public transportation). In a same time, technological innovations in automation, new mobility services emerge such as shared automobiles and bicycles, carpooling, hybrid and electric cars and self-driving vehicles. The sustainable mobility paradigm and new transportation technologies will change the way in which streets and roads are designed in the future.
This paper proposes and discusses a morphological methodology to study streets, roads and streets layouts. The purpose is to develop historical typologies and create new visions about future multimodal roads and street design. It indirectly aims to open discussions about how to use the existing streets to facilitate walking and cycling alongside new mobility technologies (new transit systems, carpools and self-driving cars).
This paper uses abstraction methods from urban morphology to produce street typology for typical Swedish neighborhoods (e.g. slutna kvarter, villastäder, småhusomeåde, etc.) and a scenario method to create visions of cities with new automated vehicles. Typologies can be created by selecting representative examples from the historical development of Swedish cities. Swedish urban morphology has a long tradition. Swedish morphologists have already classified streets and neighborhoods according to historical periods. There is also international research about historical street development and types.
The scenario method are based on future explorations. The scenario is where automated cars will run in mixed traffic is not probable due to legislative constrains (the autopilot and its company will be always blamed for a car accident). The first future scenario assumes that the automated vehicles will be completely segregated. The second scenario is the convergence of private automobile and public transportation in a hybrid system of smaller on-demand vehicles or smaller vehicles that circulate on major paths and create major nodes. Infrastructurally, even these hybrid systems would need partially or complete segregation.
The analysis/results show a neighborhood typology and typical street layouts and street spaces specifically focusing on one neighborhood type. The same method will be used for other neighborhood types in Swedish. This paper is a part of a book on historical development and envisioning streets multimodal futures of Swedish streets and roads. The project is ongoing.