Ondokuz Mayıs University

Author Of 2 Presentations

Neuromyelitis Optica and Anti-MOG Disease Oral Presentation

FC01.02 - Efficacy and safety of eculizumab in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder previously treated with rituximab: findings from PREVENT

Speakers
Presentation Number
FC01.02
Presentation Topic
Neuromyelitis Optica and Anti-MOG Disease
Lecture Time
13:12 - 13:24

Abstract

Background

In PREVENT, eculizumab was associated with a significant reduction in relapse risk versus placebo and was well tolerated. In total, 46 patients (26/96 in the eculizumab arm, 20/47 in the placebo arm) were previously treated with the monoclonal antibody rituximab.

Objectives

To describe the efficacy and safety of eculizumab in patients in the PREVENT trial (NCT01892345) who had previously received rituximab.

Methods

Adults with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder received eculizumab (maintenance dose, 1200 mg/2 weeks) or placebo with/without concomitant immunosuppressive treatment (except rituximab/mitoxantrone). A post hoc descriptive analysis was performed using data from patients with any prior rituximab treatment (within the previous year only for review of adverse events [AEs]) recorded more than 3 months before randomization.

Results

Baseline characteristics of the prior-rituximab subgroup were similar to those of the total PREVENT population; however, the subgroup included a lower proportion of Asian patients (10.9% vs 36.4% in total PREVENT) and greater representation from the Americas (58.7% vs 30.8%). In the subgroup, median times from last dose of rituximab to meningococcal vaccination and to first dose of study treatment were 31.7 and 38.7 weeks, respectively. Adjudicated relapses occurred in 1/26 patients (3.8%) and 7/20 patients (35.0%) in the eculizumab and placebo arms (hazard ratio: 0.093; 95% confidence interval: 0.011–0.755; p = 0.0055), respectively. Rates of AEs for eculizumab and placebo were 1025.8 and 1029.1 events/100 patient-years (100% of patients), respectively, and rates of serious AEs were 46.9 and 66.0 events/100 patient-years (38.9% and 47.1% of patients), respectively. Serious infections/infestations were recorded in 2/18 patients (11.1%) and 2/17 patients (11.8%) in the eculizumab and placebo arms, respectively.

Conclusions

In patients in PREVENT who had previously received rituximab, the risk of adjudicated relapse was significantly lower with eculizumab than with placebo. Rates of serious infections were similarly low with eculizumab and placebo.

Collapse
Gender Differences, Hormones and Sex Chromosomes Oral Presentation

PS12.04 - Pregnancy in a modern day multiple sclerosis cohort: Predictors of relapse during pregnancy

Abstract

Background

Historically, disease activity diminished during pregnancy in women with relapsing-remitting MS. Today, women with high disease activity are more likely to attempt pregnancy due to the disease control that new therapies offer. But disease activity during pregnancy in the modern day remains understudied.

Objectives

Describe disease activity in a modern pregnancy cohort, grouped by preconception disease-modifying therapy (DMT) class; determine the predictors of relapse during pregnancy.

Methods

Data were obtained from the MSBase Registry. Term/preterm pregnancies conceived from 2011-2019 were included. DMT were classed by low, moderate and high-efficacy. Annualized relapse rates (ARR) were calculated for each pregnancy trimester and 12 months either side. Predictors of relapse during pregnancy were determined using clustered logistic regression.

Results

We included 1640 pregnancies from 1452 women. DMT used in the year before conception were none (n=346), low (n=845), moderate (n=207) and high-efficacy (n=242). Most common DMT in each class was interferon-beta (n=597), fingolimod (n=147) and natalizumab (n=219) for low, moderate and high-efficacy respectively. Conception EDSS ≥2 was more common in higher efficacy DMT groups (high: 41.3%; moderate 28.5%; low 22.4%; none 20.2%). For low-efficacy and no DMT groups, ARR fell through pregnancy. ARR of the moderate-efficacy group increased in the 1st pregnancy trimester (0.55 [95% CI 0.36-0.80] vs 0.14 [95% CI 0.10-0.21] on low-efficacy), then decreased to a trough in the third. Conversely, ARR steadily increased throughout pregnancy for those on high-efficacy DMT (3rd trimester: 0.42 [95% CI 0.25-0.66] vs 0.12 [95% CI 0.07-0.19] on low-efficacy). Higher efficacy DMT groups were associated with higher ARR in the early postpartum period (high: 0.84 [95% CI 0.62-1.1]; moderate: 0.90 [95% CI 0.65-1.2]; low: 0.47 [95% CI 0.38-0.58]). Preconception use of high and moderate-efficacy DMT and higher preconception ARR were predictors of relapse in pregnancy. But, continuation of high-efficacy DMT into pregnancy was protective against relapse (odds ratio 0.80 [95% CI 0.68-0.94]). Age ≥35 years was associated with reduced odds of relapse.

Conclusions

Women with RRMS treated with moderate or high-efficacy DMT are at greater risk of relapse during pregnancy. Careful pregnancy management, and use of long-acting high-efficacy DMT preconception, or continuing natalizumab into pregnancy, may prevent relapse in pregnancy.

Collapse

Author Of 6 Presentations

Biostatistical Methods Poster Presentation

P0018 - Variability of the response to immunotherapy among sub-groups of patients with multiple sclerosis (ID 1239)

Abstract

Background

Our current understanding of demographic and clinical modifiers of the effectiveness of multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies is limited.

Objectives

To assess whether patients’ response to disease modifying therapies (DMT) in MS varies by disease activity (annualised relapse rate, presence of new MRI lesions), disability, age, MS duration or disease phenotype.

Methods

Using the international MSBase registry, we selected patients with MS followed for ≥1 year, with ≥3 visits, ≥1 visit per year. Marginal structural models (MSMs) were used to compare the hazard ratios (HR) of 6-month confirmed worsening and improvement of disability (EDSS), and the incidence of relapses between treated and untreated periods. MSMs were continuously re-adjusted for patient age, sex, pregnancy, date, time from first symptom, prior relapse history, disability and MRI activity.

Results

Among 23 687 patients with relapsing MS, those on DMT experienced 20% greater chance of disability improvement [HR 1.20 (95% CI 1.0-1.5)], 47% lower risk of disability worsening [HR 0.53 (0.39-0.71)] and 51% reduction in relapses [HR 0.49 (0.43-0.55)]. The effect of DMT on relapses and EDSS worsening was attenuated with longer MS duration and higher prior relapse rate. The effect of DMT on EDSS improvement and relapses was more evident in low EDSS categories. DMT was associated with 51% EDSS improvement in patients without new MRI lesions [HR 1.51 (1.00-2.28)] compared to 4% in those with MRI activity [HR 1.04 (0.88-1.24)]. Among 26329 participants with relapsing or progressive MS, DMT was associated with 25% reduction in EDSS worsening and 42% reduction in relapses in patients with relapsing MS [HR 0.75 (0.65-0.86) and HR 0.58 (CI 0.54-62), respectively], while evidence for such beneficial effects of treatment in patients with progressive MS was not found [HR 1.11 (0.91-1.46) and HR 1.16 (0.91-1.46), respectively].

Conclusions

DMTs are associated with reduction in relapse frequency, progression of disability, and increased chance of recovery from disability. In general, the effectiveness of DMTs was most pronounced in subgroups with shorter MS duration, lower EDSS, lower relapse rate and relapsing MS phenotype.

Collapse
Neuromyelitis Optica and Anti-MOG Disease Poster Presentation

P0692 - Benefit of eculizumab for a broad range of patients with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: findings from PREVENT (ID 408)

Abstract

Background

Antibodies to the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are reported to trigger the complement cascade, which is implicated in neuronal injury. The terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab is the first treatment approved for use in patients with AQP4 immunoglobulin G-positive NMOSD, based on PREVENT data.

Objectives

To determine whether the beneficial effect of eculizumab in reducing relapse risk in patients with NMOSD is associated with time since diagnosis, relapse history, disability burden or prior immunosuppressant therapy (IST) use, based on data from the phase 3 trial PREVENT (NCT01892345)

Methods

In PREVENT, patients received eculizumab (maintenance dose, 1200 mg/2 weeks) or placebo, with stable-dose concomitant IST (except rituximab and mitoxantrone) permitted. PREVENT was not powered for subgroup analyses; post hoc descriptive analysis was performed on subgroups defined by time since diagnosis, total number of historical relapses, baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and prior IST use.

Results

The proportions of patients experiencing an adjudicated relapse were lower with eculizumab than with placebo in all subgroups. Proportions for eculizumab and placebo, respectively, were: 2/31 versus 6/12 for < 1 year since diagnosis and 1/65 versus 14/35 for ≥ 1 year since diagnosis; 1/39 versus 10/24 for 2–4 historical relapses and 2/57 versus 10/23 for ≥ 5 historical relapses; 0/14 versus 3/6 for baseline EDSS scores ≤ 2.0 and 3/82 versus 17/41 for baseline EDSS scores ≥ 2.5 to ≤ 7.0; 0/15 versus 2/5 for no prior IST use (except corticosteroids alone); and 3/81 versus 18/42 for prior IST use. Relapse-risk reductions were consistent and statistically significant in all subgroups.

Conclusions

The data from this post hoc subgroup analysis suggest that eculizumab reduced relapse risk in PREVENT compared with placebo, regardless of time since NMOSD diagnosis, relapse history, disability burden or prior IST use.

Collapse
Neuromyelitis Optica and Anti-MOG Disease Poster Presentation

P0759 - Treatment patterns in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (ID 1400)

Abstract

Background

Many patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are managed using off-label immunosuppressants for relapse prevention, and treatment guidelines are based on small, often uncontrolled, studies with low levels of evidence.

Objectives

To assess real-world treatment patterns in patients with NMOSD.

Methods

Based on the global NMOBase cohort, patients diagnosed with NMOSD between 2006–2019 per the international 2015 consensus criteria and with ≥2 Expanded Disability Status Scale scores recorded at different visits were included in the study population. The aquaporin-4 autoantibody (AQP4-IgG) serostatus was determined mainly by cell-based assay; treatment sequence for maintenance therapies was assessed in seropositive (AQP4-IgG+) patients only. The date of biomarker testing was used as a proxy for diagnosis date and served as the baseline for the observational period.

Results

The study population included 334 NMOSD patients tested for AQP4-IgG serostatus. Among them, 301 (90.1%) were AQP4-IgG+. Mean age was 45.3 years; 84.1% were women and 51.8% (n=156) came from Europe. Two thirds had ≥5 visits recorded in NMObase, and the mean observational period was 4.8 years. Five treatment lines (1L–5L) were observed, with only 1.3% of the AQP4-IgG+ cohort (n=4) progressing to the last line. At baseline, the most common therapy was azathioprine (23.6%) followed by rituximab (5.3%), and 65.4% (n=197) were not prescribed any disease-modifying therapy (DMT). The median time between the test date and initiation of DMT was 3.2 months, although 25% of patients waited >10 months. Most AQP4-IgG+ patients (66.4%; n=200) progressed beyond 1L. The most frequent treatments at 2L were rituximab (43.5%) and azathioprine (41.0%). The proportion receiving rituximab, the predominant therapy beyond 2L, remained stable at 3L (48.1%; n=25) and 4L (46.7%; n=7). Across all treatment lines, there were anecdotal reports of use of DMT indicated for multiple sclerosis (MS) (e.g., betaferon), possibly reflecting old clinical practice. A large proportion (83.4%) received corticosteroids, either as acute relapse- or maintenance- therapy, along their treatment pathway.

Conclusions

Based on data collected before recent drug approvals, the main treatment options included off-label drugs and a few MS DMTs. A quarter of patients did not initiate NMOSD DMTs for >10 months from diagnosis. Newly approved therapies might partly address this unmet need, at least for AQP4-IgG+ patients.

Collapse
Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0862 - Disability accrual in primary-progressive & secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (ID 1232)

Abstract

Background

Some cohort studies have reported similar onset age and disability accrual in primary and secondary progressive MS (PPMS, SPMS); others have reported later onset and faster disability accrual in SPMS. Comparisons are complicated by differences in baseline disability and exposure to disease-modifying therapies (DMT), and by lack of a standardized definition of SPMS.

Objectives

We compared hazards of disability accrual in PPMS and SPMS patients from the MSBase cohort using multivariable Cox models, applying validated diagnostic criteria for SPMS (Lorscheider et al., Brain 2016).

Methods

Inclusion required adult-onset progressive MS; ≥ 3 recorded Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores; and, for SPMS, initial records with EDSS ≤ 3 to allow objective identification of SPMS conversion. Phenotypes were subgrouped as active (PPMS-A, SPMS-A) if ≥ 1 progressive-phase relapse was recorded, and inactive (PPMS-N, SPMS-N) otherwise. Disability accrual was defined by sustained EDSS increases confirmed over ≥ 6 months. Hazard ratios (HR) for disability accrual were obtained using Andersen-Gill Cox models, adjusted for sex and time-varying age, disability, visit frequency, and proportion of time on DMT or immunosuppressive therapy. Sensitivity analyses were performed using (1) PPMS and SPMS diagnosed since 1995, and (2) physician-diagnosed SPMS. Cumulative probability of reaching EDSS ≥ 7 (wheelchair required) was assessed (Kaplan-Meier).

Results

5461 patients were included (1257 PPMS-N; 1308 PPMS-A; 1731 SPMS-N; 1165 SPMS-A). Age at progression onset was older in SPMS than PPMS (47.2 ± 10.2, vs. 41.5 ± 10.7 [mean ± SD]), and in the inactive subgroups of each phenotype. Hazard of disability accrual was decreased in SPMS relative to PPMS (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.78–0.92); decreased by proportion of time on DMT (HR 0.99 per 10% increment; 0.98–0.99); and higher in males (1.18; 1.12–1.25). Relative to PPMS-N, hazard was decreased in SPMS-A (0.79; 0.71–0.87) but similar for PPMS-A (1.01; 0.93–1.10) and SPMS-N (0.94; 0.85–1.05). Sensitivity analyses corroborated these results. However, patients with SPMS-A reached EDSS ≥ 7 at younger ages (cumulative probability 30% by 57, vs. 64–66 for SPMS-N, PPMS-A, PPMS-N).

Conclusions

Progressive phase onset is later in SPMS than PPMS. Hazard of disability accrual during the progressive phase is lower in SPMS than PPMS. However, patients with SPMS-A reach wheelchair requirement younger than other progressive phenotypes, reflecting earlier progression onset versus SPMS-N, and greater disability at onset versus PPMS

Collapse
Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0909 - Real-world experience with Ocrelizumab in the MSBase Registry (ID 1559)

Abstract

Background

Ocrelizumab (OCR) is a humanised anti-CD20+ monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), and relapsing forms of MS, including both relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) with relapses.

Objectives

In a real-world setting, to describe 1) baseline characteristics of patients with MS treated with OCR, 2) treatment pathway across lines of therapy up to initiation of OCR, and 3) initial clinical experience in patients with ≥6 months follow-up data from OCR initiation.

Methods

Secondary data analysis using MSBase Registry data including patients with a confirmed diagnosis of MS and started OCR therapy within 3 months prior to or at time of MSBase eligible/initial visit. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze baseline patient characteristics' recorded within 3 months of OCR initiation, including demographics, disease course and duration, prior disease modifying therapies (DMT), and EDSS. Occurrence of relapse was analyzed in patients with ≥6 months follow-up data from OCR initiation.

Results

As of 4th June 2020, MSBase included 2531 patients newly treated with OCR, of whom 1679 had an EDSS evaluation within 3 months of OCR start. There were 1185 patients with RRMS, 236 with SPMS, and 183 with PPMS. Median age at OCR initiation was 41.9 years, 49.5 years, to 50.1 years in RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS, respectively. Mean disease duration from symptom onset up to OCR initiation was longer in SPMS (19.7 years) than in RRMS (10.6 years) and PPMS (9.7 years). OCR was initiated as first line therapy in 17.5%, 5.5%, and 54.2% of RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS patients respectively. Most frequent previous DMT’s in RRMS were fingolimod (25.7%) and natalizumab (23.5%). 693 patients with RRMS had ≥6 months follow-up during OCR exposure. Of these, 643 remained relapse free (93%; 95% CI 86.0, 100.0) over a mean OCR exposure of 1.23 years. The annualized relapse rate (ARR) was 0.08 (95% CI 0.06-0.10), compared to an ARR of 0.85 in the 24 months pre-OCR start. In the overall cohort, treatment persistence at 12 and 24 months was 98.4% (95% CI: 97.3-9.1%) and 92.5% (95%CI 89-95%), respectively.

Conclusions

This study characterizes an international population of patients with RRMS, PPMS, and SPMS newly treated with OCR in a real-world clinical setting. First-line use was uncommon in RRMS and SPMS. During OCR treatment, ARR was below 0.1, and OCR discontinuations were very rare.

Collapse
Reproductive Aspects and Pregnancy Poster Presentation

P1131 - Pregnancy in a modern day multiple sclerosis cohort: Predictors of postpartum relapse and disability progression (ID 1321)

Abstract

Background

Disease activity has been investigated in pregnant women with RRMS treated with low-efficacy or no therapy. How newer, more efficacious therapies affect relapse and disability progression risk after pregnancy remains understudied.

Objectives

To describe disease activity in a modern pregnancy cohort contrasted with historical cohorts. To determine the predictors of postpartum relapse and the predictors of six-month confirmed disability progression events in a contemporary pregnancy cohort.

Methods

Data were obtained from the MSBase Registry. Term/preterm pregnancies conceived from 2011-2019 (modern cohort) were compared with those conceived between 2005-2010 and pre-2005. Annualised relapse rates (ARR) were calculated for each pregnancy trimester and 12 months either side. Predictors of time-to-relapse postpartum (1st 3 months) and time to 6-month confirmed disability progression event were determined with clustered Cox regression analyses. Breastfeeding duration and time to DMT reinitiation were modelled as time-varying covariates.

Results

We included 1640 pregnancies from 1452 women (modern cohort). Disease-modifying therapy (DMT) used in the year before conception included interferon-beta (n=597), natalizumab (n=219) and fingolimod (n=147). Continuation of DMT up to conception increased over time (31% pre-2005 vs 54% modern cohort). Preconception ARR decreased across epochs (pre-2005: 0·58 [95% CI 0·49-0·70]; 2005-2010: 0·40 [95% CI 0·36-0·45]; modern: 0·29 [95% CI 0·27-0·32]). In all epochs, ARR decreased during pregnancy to reach similar troughs in the 3rd trimester, and rebounded in the 1st 3-months postpartum. Preconception use of high-efficacy DMT predicted early postpartum relapse (hazard ratio (HR) 2.1 [1.4-3.1]); although those on no DMT were also at risk of postpartum relapse, relative to women on low-efficacy DMT (HR 2.7 [1.2-5.9]). Conception EDSS 2, higher preconception and in-pregnancy ARR were also risk factors. DMT reinitiation, particularly of high-efficacy DMT (HR 0.17 [0.07-0.38]), was protective against postpartum relapse. Women who breastfed were less likely to relapse (HR 0.63 [0.42-0.94]). 4.5% of modern pregnancies had confirmed disability progression after delivery. This was predicted by higher pregnancy and postpartum ARR, with postpartum ARR remaining independently predictive in multivariable analysis (HR 1.5 [1.2-2.0]).

Conclusions

The early postpartum period remains a period of vulnerability for disease rebound in women with MS in the modern era. Early DMT reinitiation, particularly with high-efficacy treatment, is protective against postpartum relapse. Confirmed disability progression events after pregnnacy are uncommon in the modern era. Relapse activity is the key driver of these events.

Collapse