Author Of 2 Presentations
PS01.05 - Rituximab treatment for MS: an observational multicentric dose comparison
Rituximab (RTX) is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, widely used as an off-label treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite well-known efficacy and safety, RTX regimen has not yet been standardized.
We aimed to compare efficacy and safety data of two different rituximab doses at two large Catalan multiple sclerosis centres.
A two-centre ambispective study considering all MS patients that have received at least one RTX cycle until February 2020 was conducted. In Barcelona centre (BC), RTX regimen used was 2g intravenously (IV), at least during 3 cycles, followed by 1g every 6 months, while in Girona centre (GC), was 2g IV, at least the first cycle, followed by 500mg every 6 months. Patients were clinically followed every 6 months with lab tests, and brain MRI scans were performed at baseline and yearly thereafter. Baseline clinical, radiological and demographic characteristics were collected. Annual relapse rate (ARR), contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs) and new T2 lesions at one and third year on treatment, as well as EDSS changes at last follow-up visit, were evaluated. Also, the dynamics of CD19% lymphocytes and IG immunoglobulin (IgG) values in serum, as well as the incidence of adverse events (AE) were described.
A total of 303 patients (249 at BC and 54 at GC) were included. Main reason to start RTX was clinical progression plus inflammatory activity (clinical, radiological or both) (45.8% BC vs 79.6% GC). No differences on age at RTX onset, gender and disease duration were found between both centres. At baseline, mean ARR was 0.37±0.6 (BC) vs. 0.33±0.5 (GC); median EDSS was 5.5 (1-9.0) (BC) vs. 6.0 (1-8.0) (GC); and proportion of MRI with CELs was 32.4% (BC) vs. 42.6% (GC). ARR decrease to 0.05 (87.5%, p<0.001) for BC vs. 0.03 (90.3%, p=0.018) for GC at first year, and to 0.08 (88.3%, p=0.016) vs. 0 (100%, p=0.172) at third year. Considering only progressive MS phenotypes, 79.4% vs. 71.4% of patients remained stable or improved the EDSS. Regarding MRI findings, percentages of patients with CELs and new T2 lesions (BC vs GC) were 2.7% vs. 8% and 19% vs. 16% at one year; and 0% vs. 0% and 12% vs. 0% at third year. AE incidence was higher at BC during the first year (14.8% vs 4.1%). No difference in the dynamics of CD19% lymphocytes was found, while IgG values decreased significantly in the BC cohort throughout the first 3 years.
In the treatment of multiple sclerosis, low doses of rituximab seem to offer similar effectiveness with better safety profile than high doses.
PS09.03 - Predictive biomarkers of the development of autoimmunity in patients treated with alemtuzumab
Alemtuzumab has proven to be an effective treatment for patients with highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). However, its use has been limited by adverse events (AEs) as secondary autoimmunity, being the most frequent those involving the thyroid gland, observed in around 40% of patients.
To explore whether patient blood lymphocyte profile before alemtuzumab treatment initiation can identify patients with an increased risk of developing later autoimmunity.
A multicentre prospective longitudinal study was performed, including fifty‐four Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) patients diagnosed in five Spanish hospitals. Patient blood samples were collected before initiating treatment with alemtuzumab. Autoimmune AEs were defined as the development, at any point within 2 years of follow-up, of any autoimmune thyroid-associated event, immune thrombocytopenia and/or autoimmune nephropathy. Differences were assessed using Man-Whitney U tests. Cut-off values were established using ROC curves to predict autoimmune AEs. Odds ratios were calculated by Fisher tests.
Fifty‐four RRMS patients, 36 (66.7%) women, with a median (range) age of 28 (13–67) years and median (range) follow-up of 6 (0-20) years. Fourteen patients (25.9%) experienced autoimmune AEs, and all of them were dysthyroidism. No immune thrombocytopenia or nephropathies were observed. No statistical differences were found in clinical and demographic characteristics between patients who developed autoimmune AEs and those who did not. Patients who experienced autoimmune AEs before treatment onset had a higher percentage of blood CD19+ B cells (p=0.001), with a higher relative percentage of naïve B cells and plasmablasts. When explored total cell numbers, only plasmablast levels remained significant (p=0.02). A lower risk of autoimmune AEs after alemtuzumab was observed among patients with less than 7.6% of blood CD19+ B cells [odds ratio (OR) 16, confidence interval (CI) 3.86–58.95, p<0.0001] or less than 0.13% of plasmablast cells [OR 9.33, CI 2.17–42.65, p=0.002].
A low percentages of blood CD19+ B cells or plasmablasts before Alemtuzumab treatment predicted a lower risk of autoimmune AEs.
Author Of 9 Presentations
P0087 - Identification of proteins associated with ageing in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (ID 1589)
Similar to other neurodegenerative disorders, the onset of progressive MS is related to age, a factor known to amplify neurodegeneration. Recent studies have shown that exposure of aged mice to a young blood circulation through parabiosis or administration of young blood plasma (plasma from 3-month-old mice) reverses cognitive deficits observed with normal ageing.
We aimed to search for soluble factors in the serum of patients with progressive MS that are affected by age and are differentially decreased in patients compared to healthy controls (HC) of similar age.
Protein levels were determined in serum samples from a cohort of 30 untreated MS patients (15 patients with secondary progressive MS - SPMS - and 15 with primary progressive MS - PPMS) and 25 HC. Progressive MS patients were classified according to age and clinical characteristics into the following three groups (each group containing 10 patients, 5 with SPMS and 5 with PPMS): (i) 40 ± 3 years old, disease duration <10 years, EDSS <4.5; (ii) 50 ± 3 years old, disease duration between 10-20 years, EDSS between 4.5-6; and (iii) 60 ± 3 years old, disease duration >20 years, EDSS >6.5. HC were classified based on age into the following groups (each group containing 5 individuals): 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 ± 3 years old. To maximize the breadth and depth of serum proteome coverage, the top 70 abundant proteins in serum were depleted. Afterwards, samples were subjected to mass spectrometry.
After depletion of the most abundant proteins in serum, a total of 2,059 molecules were detected in all 55 samples. The maSigPro package (R Bioconductor) was used to identify proteins with significantly divergent expression profiles as a function of time. A quadratic regression model was fit for each molecule and 823 proteins, among the 2059 analyzed, were found differentially expressed (FDR < 0.05) between the MS group and HC. The serum levels of the following proteins were significantly decreased by ageing in progressive MS patients compared with HC and were selected for further studies: PLXDC2, Neudesin, Myostatin, Myocilin, and EMMPRIN.
Protein expression profiling associated with ageing in progressive MS patients and HC lead to the identification of number of promising candidates associated with neurotrophic functions, myelination, and nervous system development. Results obtained by mass spectrometry need to be validated by targeted immunoassays.
P0245 - An unusual mimic of progression in Multiple Sclerosis patients (ID 253)
Superficial siderosis (SS) is a rare disease caused by hemosiderin deposition in central nervous system and typically leads to neurological dysfunction and progressive irreversible symptoms. Multiple Sclerosis is most common demyelinating disease which usually courses with relapses and remissions but some patients can have a progressive course. Progression in MS patients is defined as a worsening of functional systems over one year.
We are presenting MS patient since 1994 who developed in last three years a progressive ataxia which was initially attributed to MS progression, nevertheless MRI showed hypointensities on cerebellum that led us to diagnose SS. Recognizing this entity is important because it could be a cause of pseudo progression in MS patients.
We want to disclose the superficial siderosis as an unusual cause of pseudo-progression in patients affected by multiple sclerosis.
A 63 year-old woman with history of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) treated with Glatiramer acetate. She was stable until 2017, but since then she started to notice clumsiness of her both hands and difficulties to walk. She even had some falls because of unsteady gait.
Her Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) passed from 2.0 to 4.5 due to worsening of cerebellar functional system and the using of a cane for walking. Over next three years she had progressive impairment of gait and coordination of all limbs. Sensorineural hearing loss of unknown cause was also diagnosed during this time. On last neurological examination she presented mild cerebellar dysarthria, moderate ataxia of all limbs, ataxic gait and need to walk with bilateral support. Other signs of the neurological examination were mild decrease of vibration and brisk reflexes on lower extremities. Currently her EDSS is 6.5
A cerebellar relapse was ruled out as cause of her symptoms because of progressive course, no recovery after steroids and no evidence of new T2 lesions on cerebellum. A RRMS turning into SPMS was initially accepted as responsible of her worsening.
A comprehensive approach was performed, as there was an almost exclusive deterioration of the cerebellar functional system. So, a new brain MRI was requested and hemosiderin effect was seen along cerebellar folias. This finding was the key to diagnose superficial siderosis.
A neuroaxis MRI evaluation was done and there was no evidence of SS in other parts of CNS nor evidence of chronic bleeding that causes SS on cerebellum.
We proposed to initiate treatment with Deferiprone but the patient rejected to take it after we exposed lack of clear effectiveness. She is still being treated with Glatiramer acetate for MS.
Superficial siderosis can be a mimic of progression in patients affected by multiple sclerosis, that is why we recommend to take into account this entity in those patients with progressive worsening of walking secondary to exclusive affectation of cerebellar functional system.
P0517 - Circulating miRNA signatures in PPMS (ID 1309)
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) is a clinical subtype of MS characterized by the progressive accumulation of disability from onset. It is diagnosed in approximately 15% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS).
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that participate in the regulation of gene expression. Their role in different diseases, including MS, is being studied.
Current disease-modifying therapies for MS as well as miRNA studies mainly focus on relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), the most common subtype.
The aim of this study was to identify and validate a differential profile of circulating miRNAs in PPMS patients compared to RRMS and controls with other neurological disease (OND) subjects in order to increase our knowledge of the biological processes involved in the different forms of the disease.
miRNAs were extracted from serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a cohort of 111 patients (49 PPMS, 35 RRMS and 27 OND). In the identification phase, samples were analyzed using TaqMan OpenArray Human Advanced MicroRNA panels and in the validation phase, the quantification of the miRNAs was performed by qPCR. Differential expression was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with the normalized value of miRNAs.
In the identification phase, 10 miRNAs showed differential expression in serum between some of the groups; while in CSF, miR-143-3p presented differential expression in PPMS group (p= 0.009), and let-7b-5p and miR-451a showed a tendency to be deregulated.
In serum samples, the validation phase showed miR-20a-5p overexpression in PPMS compared to controls, and miR-26a-5p among the forms of MS (p= 0.002 and p= 0.036, respectively). On the other hand, miR-142-5p was differentially expressed in RRMS compared to OND (p= 0.036).
In CSF, let-7b-5p and miR-143-3p presented significantly reduced levels in PPMS forms compared to OND (p= 0.029 and p= 0.039, respectively).
miR-20a-5p, miR-26a-5p, let-7b-5p and miR-143-3p present deregulation in PPMS versus RRMS and OND, indicating that they are involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of PPMS forms. Further studies will be necessary to determine the role of these miRNAs in the development of the different forms of the disease.
P0519 - Differential expression of miRNAs in CSF of MS patients depending on their ethnic origin (ID 1312)
Some studies have shown a more aggressive clinical course in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of North African origin residing in Europe. It has been established that some genetic and environmental factors interact in a complex way by means of epigenetics to produce the pathology and the symptoms in MS. One of these epigenetic mechanisms is microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNA molecules that participate in the regulation of gene expression.
The objective of this study was to identify the existence of a differential profile of circulating cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) miRNAs between individuals with MS based on their ethnic origin.
A cohort of 20 individuals was studied: 10 European origin (MS-E) and 10 North African origin individuals (MS-NA). MS-NA individuals were subclassified according to migration age (before or after 15 years old).
216 miRNAs were analyzed in CSF using TaqMan OpenArray Human Advanced MicroRNA panels. Differential expression of the normalized value of each miRNA was studied using the U Mann-Whitney test.
When comparing the expression of miRNAs in CSF between MS-E and MS-NA, overexpression of miR-335-5p and miR-653-3p was observed in MS-NA (p= 0.008 and p= 0.027, respectively). Furthermore, two other miRNAs (miR-143-3p and miR-20a-5p) showed a tendency to be deregulated.
A sub-analysis was performed in which MS-NA was divided according to the age of migration. miR-145-5p, miR-150-5p and miR-653-3p showed significant differences between some of the 3 groups. Specifically, miR-150-5p, previously related to inflammation and MS in CSF, showed very low levels in MS-NA that migrated older than 15 years of age.
The results show the presence of a differential expression in miRNAs between MS patients according to their ethnic origin. In patients of North African origin who migrated at an early age, an overexpression of miRNAs clearly related to inflammation is observed.
P0524 - Importance of control group selection for differential miRNA profile studies (ID 1296)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies are necessary in neurological diseases, but the use of healthy controls (HC) is limited due to the ethical issues and difficulty in obtaining them. Usually, the control group corresponds to patients with other neurological diseases (OND).
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the control group in detecting altered miRNAs in multiple sclerosis (MS).
A panel of 216 CSF-specific miRNAs were analyzed using TaqMan Open Array Human Advanced MicroRNA in a cohort of 38 patients (16 primary progressive forms – PPMS, 9 HC, 13 OND).
HC corresponds to neurologically healthy patients with hip/knee impairment undergoing surgical intervention that requires spinal anaesthesia.
The pathologies presented by OND were: 6 individuals of vascular origin, 3 migraines, 1 conversion syndrome, 1 dementia, 1 dizziness, 1 cerebellar syndrome of non-inflammatory/infectious origin.
miR-1260a, miR-320a, and let-7c-5p showed differential expression, or a trend, in PPMS versus HC (p = 0.005; p = 0.021; p = 0.088, respectively). When making the same comparison with OND these significances were lost.
When analyzing deregulated miRNAs function, it was observed that let-7c-5p and miR-320a are involved in cerebral ischaemic and neurodegenerative disorders.
Choosing the control group is crucial to identify altered miRNAs in a specific condition. If the objective is to identify metabolic pathways involved in a certain process, HC will be necessary since OND controls can share the altered pathways. On the other hand, when the objective is to identify biomarkers, the incorporation of OND into the analysis will be of great value to differentiate pathologies.
P0699 - Clinical and radiological features of a hospital cohort of Neuromyelitis optica. (ID 324)
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are mostly relapsing autoimmune inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system. Hallmark features of NMOSD include acute attacks of bilateral or rapidly sequential optic neuritis or transverse myelitis. Attacks most often occur over days, with variable degrees of recovery over weeks to months
Other suggestive symptoms include episodes of intractable nausea, vomiting, hiccups, excessive daytime somnolence or narcolepsy, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, neuroendocrine disorders, and seizures
The discovery of AQP-4 antibodies supposed a breakthrough for understanding NMOSD. Recently, MOG antibodies have been also related to this entity. However, about 10-50% of NMOSD patients are still seronegative. These patients are a heterogeneous subgroup that may be associated with other autoantibodies
To identify main clinical and radiological characteristics
To recognize differences between seropositive and seronegative NMOSD patients
To evaluate safety and effectiveness of Rituximab
We presented 12 patients diagnosed of NMOSD according revised consensus criteria published in 2015 at Unit of Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis Unit of Girona, Spain
The data were collected during the course of clinical care. We focused on medical history, neurologic symptoms, MRI features, CSF findings
Rituximab response was assessed using the annualized relapse rate (ARR)
Disease-onset form: optic neuritis 7 (58,3%) 1 of them had bilateral optic neuritis; myelitis 4 (33,3%); brainstem syndrome 1 (8,3%)
Abnormal laboratory findings: 2 patients had positivity for lupus anticoagulant, 1 for TPO-Ab and 1 for ANAs
8 patients were seronegative NMOSD
6 patients (50%) had cognitive impairment
CSF findings: 8 patients had CSF abnormalities include pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. Oligoclonal bands were positive in 4 patients
4 patients were positive for antibodies: AQP-4= 2 / MOG= 2
MRI findings: 4 patients had brain MRI abnormalities that matched with NMOSD pattern, rest of patients had normal or unspecific MRI. Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions were observed in 7 patients. Cervical and thoracic segments were most affected
4 patients had positivity for other antibodies. 3 of them are seronegative NMOSD
Of 4 seropositive patients, 3 had cognitive impairment
Of 4 patients with presence of CSF oligoclonal bands, 3 were seronegative NMOSD
ARR before Rituximab: 1,25 and ARR after Rituximab: 0,27
No patient had serious adverse events after Rituximab treatment. Rituximab was discontinued in 1 patient due to an allergic reaction
Seronegative NMOSD has a prevalence up to 60% and it could be related with presence of other serum antibodies and with positivity for CSF oligoclonal bands
Cognitive impairment is frequent in NMOSD and can be more prevalent in seropositive patients
Rituximab is safe and effective to reduce ARR
P0975 - Lipid-specific oligoclonal IgM bands condition age-related changes in multiple sclerosis (ID 1396)
- C. Picón
- A. Tejeda-Velarde
- J. Fernandez-Velasco
- M. Comabella
- R. Alvarez-Lafuente
- E. Quintana
- S. Sainz de la Maza
- E. Monreal
- N. Villarrubia
- J. Álvarez-Cermeño
- M. Domínguez-Mozo
- L. Ramió I Torrentà
- E. Rodríguez-Martin
- E. Roldán
- Y. Aladro
- S. Medina
- M. Espiño
- J. Masjuan
- C. Matute-Blanch
- M. Muñoz-San Martin
- C. Espejo
- C. Guaza
- L. Costa-Frossard
- L. Villar
Age has high influence on clinical course of chronic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Lipid-specific oligoclonal IgM bands (LS-OCBM) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients are biomarkers of high inflammatory disease. However, the relationship between both variables has not been fully studied.
To explore age-related changes in CSF of MS patients leading to senescence and to study the role of LS-OCBM in this process.
A prospective cross-sectional study of 263 MS patients followed at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid. Seventy-two showed (M+) and 191 (M-) lacked CSF LS-OCBM. We explored CSF immune cells, soluble mediators, microRNAs and clinical data.
MS patients older than 45 years (O45) showed significant rises in CSF Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1; p=0.001) and T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3; p<0.0001), which induce lymphocyte tolerance, and in Chitinase 3-like-1 (p<0.0001) and Activin-A (p<0.0001), which lead to innate cell activation. This associated with low values of pro-inflammatory B cells and of Th17 lymphocytes. In addition, M- O45 patients experienced significant increases in miR-125b-5p (p=0.01) and miR-145-5p (p=0.02), two miRNA associated with immune senescence, an increase of let-7b-5p (p=0.01) that counteract innate-cell activation, a dramatic decrease of CSF lymphocytes (p<0.0001) and of NK cells (p=0.002) and increased serum anti-cytomegalovirus antibodies (p=0.009). However, M+ O45 patients exhibited a reduction of miR-204-5p (p=0.01), that induce innate-cell activation and increased CSF levels of superoxide dismutase (p=0.04) and isoprostane (p=0.03), markers of oxidative stress. These changes resulted in increased Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) on M+ O45 patients.
M- O45 MS patients showed inhibition of the intrathecal adaptive immune response and early immunosenescence. Conversely, M+ O45 MS patients displayed intrathecal innate cell activation and accelerated disability worsening. These data could be relevant for treating aged MS patients.
P1024 - Economic impact of the Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis in Spain: Interim analysis of the DISCOVER study (ID 1595)
- C. Oreja-Guevara
- J. Río
- J. Ara Callizo
- M. Hernández Pérez
- J. Gracia Gil
- L. Ramió I Torrentà
- B. Pilo De La Fuente
- A. Alonso Torres
- S. Martínez-Yélamos
- F. Gascón Giménez
- S. Eichau Madueño
- B. Casanova-Estruch
- M. Martínez Ginés
- M. Aguado Valcárcel
- J. Martínez Rodríguez
- A. López Real
- C. López De Silanes
- V. González Quintanilla
- Y. El Berdei Montero
- A. Labiano
- M. Garcés Redondo
- L. Costa-Frossard
- J. García Merino
- F. Castellanos Pinedo
- C. Muñoz Fernández
- V. Meca-Lallana
- T. Castillo-Trivino
- A. Ródríguez-Antiguedad
- J. Peña Martínez
- J. Prieto González
- D. Solar Sánchez
- I. Pérez Molina
- E. Agüera Morales
- N. Herrera Varo
- J. Meca-Lallana
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune, neurodegenerative disease. Around 19% of treated patients with relapsing-remitting MS progress to Secondary Progressive MS (SPMS) 15 years after disease onset, representing the most severe stage of the disease. MS symptoms lead to a general disability, impacting the quality of life of patients and also being related with an important economic burden on the National Health System, the patients, their caregivers and the whole society.
There are limited published data on the economic impact of SPMS. The main objective of the study was to estimate the economic impact of SPMS in Spain.
DISCOVER (CBAF312AES01) is an observational, non-interventional, cross-sectional, retrospective and multicenter study, including 297 SPMS patients ≥18 years treated and monitored according to routine clinical practice in Spain in 34 public hospitals. All data was collected in one single visit. Primary endpoint: total annual cost per patient, including direct healthcare and non-healthcare costs and indirect costs. Interim results from 99 patients are presented.
62.6% females; mean (SD) age 53.1 (9.3) years; 40.4% with higher education; 86.9% living with a relative. Mean (SD) time since first MS diagnosis was 17.5 (8.9) years and since progression to SPMS 5.2 (4.3) years. At diagnosis, mean (SD) EDSS was 2.0 (1.1), being 5.0 (1.1) at the time of progression and 5.9 (0.8) at the study visit, 47.5% patients reaching EDSS>6. 12.8% of patients presented relapses between 12-24 months before the study. According to EQ-5D-5L, mean (SD) utility (<1) was 0.48 (0.27) for patients with Gd+ lesions and/or relapses 2 years before. According to EQ-5D-5L, mean (SD) utility (<1) for patients with cognitive impairment was 0.45 (0.29) vs 0.51 (0.21) for those without it. Mean (SD) utility for Spanish general population was 0.897 (0.21). EDSS score showed a significative effect (P=0.0074) on the economic burden of the disease, with total costs increasing from 14,546€ (EDSS 4-4.5) to 21,918€ (EDSS 5-5.5) and 26,832€ (EDSS=6). Costs related to patients with EDSS=6 from the societal, patient and healthcare system were 6,441€, 8,450€ and 11,941€, respectively.
Interim results of the DISCOVER study revealed a significant economic impact of MS progression, highlighting the importance of implementing therapeutic strategies specific to the SPMS patient within the early stages of progression.
P1092 - Effect of Dalfampridine on functional systems and its impact on Expanded Disability Status Scale (ID 281)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) can cause progressive walking impairment that contributes to disability and reduced quality of life. Dalfampridine, a voltage-dependent potassium channel blocker, has been shown to improve walking in patients with MS, as demonstrated by an increase in walking speed.
Dalfampridine is approved as symptomatic treatment of impaired mobility in MS patients. Recently, it has been published dalfampridine could have an effect on other functional systems (FS) not directly related to ambulation.
To demonstrate the dalfampridine effect on different FS.
To identify wether the impact on the different FS stabilizes the EDSS.
To establish correlations between different scales used to measure dalfampridine effectiveness and FS scores.
We collected 22 patients diagnosed of either relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive or primary progressive MS according Mc Donald´s criteria 2010 responsers to dalfampridine for at least one year.
Dalfampridine effectiveness was evaluated by Timed 25 foot-walk (T25-FW), Timed Up and GO (TUG), and Two minutes walk test (2MWT).
EDSS was performed every 3 months.
Median, interquartile ranges and p values were evaluated by Friedman test.
- The mean of follow-up was 19,5 months (13 - 26)
- Outcomes on functional systems were:
Visual functions: at start treatment 0,0 (0.0 - 1.0); at 12 months 0,0 (0.0 - 0.0); at last visit: 0,0 (0.0 - 0.0) p= 0,069
Brainstem functions: at start treatment 0,0 (0.0 - 2.0); at 12 months 0,0 (0.0 - 2.0); at last visit: 0,0 (0.0 - 2.0) p= 0,368
Pyramidal functions: at start treatment 3,0 (2.0 - 3.0); at 12 months 3,0 (2.0 - 3.0); at last visit: 3,0 (2.0 - 3.0) p= 1,000
Cerebellar functions: at start treatment 2,0 (2.0 - 3.0); at 12 months 2,0 (1.0 - 2.0); at last visit: 2,0 (1.0 - 2.0) p= 0,670
Sensory functions: at start treatment 2,0 (2.0 - 3.0); at 12 months 2,0 (2.0 - 3.0); at last visit: 2,0 (2.0 - 3.0) p= 0,867
Bowel and Bladder functions: at start treatment 1,0 (0.0 - 1.0); at 12 months 1,0 (1.0 - 1.0); at last visit: 1,0 (1.0 - 1.0) p= 1,000
Cerebral functions: at start treatment 1,0 (0.0 - 2.0); at 12 months 0,0 (0.0 - 0.0); at last visit: 0,0 (0.0 - 0.0) p= 0,005
Ambulation score: at start treatment 6,0 (2.0 - 7.0); at 12 months 6,0 (3.0 - 7.0); at last visit: 6,0 (5.0 - 8.0) p= 0,323
- The EDSS mean at the start of dalfampridine was 5,61 (4.0 - 6.5), at 12 months 5,5 (3.5 - 7.0) p= 0,339 and at the last visit 5,45 (2.0 - 7.0) p= 0,441.
- There was a negative correlation between sphincter and sensory functions and 2MWT.
We could obtain a relevant effect of dalfampridine on cerebral functions measured over more than a year. Nonetheless, we can not conclude if this outcome is directly related with an effect over cognition or it is related with improvement of fatigue and depression.
EDSS remained stable over more than a year in dalfampridine responsers.
We can not explain why patients who are responsers to dalfampridine had worsening of sphincter and sensory functions at the same time.