Clinica Neurologica, Ospedale San Salvatore

Author Of 1 Presentation

Observational Studies Oral Presentation

PS01.04 - Comparison of disability trajectories in relapsing Multiple Sclerosis patients treated with early intensive or escalation treatment strategies

Abstract

Background

to date, no consensus exists on how aggressively and timely treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients.

Objectives

To evaluate disability trajectories in a cohort of RRMS patients stratified according to two different disease modifying therapy (DMT) strategies, early intensive treatment (EIT) or moderate-efficacy treatment followed by escalation to higher-efficacy DMT (ESC).

Methods

RRMS patients with ≥5-year follow-up and ≥3 visits after start DMT, and a first visit within 3 years from disease onset were selected from the Italian MS Registry. EIT group included patients who received, as first DMT, fingolimod, natalizumab, mitoxantrone, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab, cladribine. ESC group included those who received the high efficacy DMT after ≥1 year of glatiramer acetate, interferons, azathioprine, teriflunomide or dimethylfumarate treatment. Patients were 1:1 propensity score(PS)-matched for characteristics at the first DMT. The follow-up time from the first DMT start has been segmented into 12-month periods. The disability trajectories were evaluated by applying a longitudinal model for repeated measures with an autoregressive variance-covariance structure. The effect of early versus late start of high-efficacy DMT was assessed by the mean annual EDSS changes compared to baseline values (delta-EDSS) in EIT and ESC groups.

Results

The study cohort included 2,652 RRMS patients from 62 Italian MS centers. The PS matching procedure produced 365 pairs. The median (IQR) follow-up after the first DMT start was 8.5 (6.5–11.7) years. All of the ESC patients escalated to a higher-efficacy DMT after a median time of 5.1 (3.1–8.4) years. The estimated baseline EDSS with relative confidence interval (95% CI) value was 2.52 (2.33-2.71) in the ESC group and 2.45 (2.26-2.64) in the EIT group. Mean delta-EDSS at each 12 month period were all significantly (p<0.02) higher in the ESC group compared to the EIT group. In particular, the mean delta-EDSS differences between the two groups tend to increase from 0.1 (0.01-0.19, p=0.03) at 1 year to 0.30 (0.07-0.53, p=0.009) at 5 years and to 0.67 (0.31-1.03, p=0.0003) at 10 years.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that EIT strategy is more effective than ESC strategy in controlling disability progression and the effect tends to increase over time despite patients in the ESC group escalated to a higher-efficacy DMT.

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Author Of 2 Presentations

Clinical Outcome Measures Poster Presentation

P0100 - Italian prospective multicentric observational real-life study of aggressive Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis treated with alemtuzumab (ID 1730)

Abstract

Background

Alemtuzumab(ALEM) is an anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of active Multiple Sclerosis(MS) which showed an overall high efficacy in clinical trials, also in the highly active subgroup of patients.

Objectives

The aim of this multicenter obervational study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of ALEM-treatment in a population of aggressive MS naïve-patients at year 2 and 3 after a complete cycle of treatment.

Methods

We conducted a multicenter prospective observational study in a cohort of ALEM-naïve MS patients. Clinical and neuroradiological parameters were collected from patients’ clinical records in 26 Italian MS Centers from October 2015 to May 2020.

Results

133 naïve patients were treated with ALEM: 60,2% females, mean age 31,4(± 8,9) years, mean disease duration 18,5(± 22,7) months, mean follow-up(FU) 34,2(± 12,1) months, median EDSS 3(0-6,5), ARR in the year preceding treatment 1,8 (± 0,9), mean number of brain T2/FLAIR-hyperintense lesions 29,8 (± 20,8) and mean number of Gd-enhancing lesions 3,4(± 5,1). Regarding ALEM efficacy, we report data obtained after the first complete cycle of treatment (2 ALEM-courses) because the occurrence of disease activity between the first and second course is not indicative of a therapeutic failure. 99 and 61 over 133 patients have at least 24 and 36 months FU respectively: 97% and 82% were relapse-free, ARR was 0,02 and 0,1, 92.9% and 82% were MRI activity-free and 97,7% and 91,8% progression-free with median EDSS of 2,0 and 1,5 (IQR 1 – 2,5) at year 2 and 3. The mean time to first relapse was 27,6(± 6,4) months 89,2% and 69,4% of patients reached NEDA-3 at year 2 and year 3 respectively. 5,3% of patients needed a third cycle of therapy. Overall 74,4% of patients had adverse events. Infusion-reaction and infections occurred respectively in 70,1% and 9,8% of patients; regarding secondary autoimmune disease the most frequent was thyroid dysfunction (15,8%).

Conclusions

In our very active MS-population after ALEM-treatment a strong reduction of both relapse rate and MRI activity was achieved. These results strengthen the assumption that aggressive naïve patient is an ideal candidate for immune system resetting, likely due to young age, short disease duration and low disability. Furthermore, absence of previous immunomodulating/immunosuppressant drugs altering the immune system could play a key role in determining effectiveness of this powerful drug. However, longer FU is needed to confirm our data and evaluate whether an early induction therapy could be worthy in this specific population, balancing benefit-risk ratio.

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Epidemiology Poster Presentation

P0506 - Towards a validated Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis definition: A study from the Italian MS Register (ID 1432)

Abstract

Background

No clear metrics for sensitive and reliable identification of the transition from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) to secondary progressive (SP)MS are available.

Objectives

To compare diagnostic performances of two different data-driven Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis definitions.

Methods

patient with RRMS with a follow-up ≥5 years, with a current age ≥18 years, and with ≥3 EDSS scores recorded were selected from the Italian MS Registry. Annual incidence of SPMS conversion was reported as number of patients converting to SP every 100 patients/year. Three different SPMS definitions have been used. Data-driven definitions based on the Lorscheider’s algorithm (LA) and on the EXPAND trial inclusion criteria were validated, using the neurologist’s definition as gold standard, in terms of calibration, discrimination and goodness of fit by calculating: sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV), the Akaike information criterion (AIC), the Area Under the Curve (AUC). The overall calibration of the data-driven definitions was evaluated by the Calibration Slope test.

Results

a cohort of 10,240 RRMS patients was extracted from the Italian MS Registry. According to the neurologist judgment, 880 (8.59%) patients were classified as SPMS in the dataset. By applying the LA and the EXPAND definition, 1,806 (17.64%) and 1,134 (11.07%) patients, respectively, were classified as SPMS. The annual rate of SP conversion during the follow-up was 0.74 every 100 patients/year based on the neurologist’s definition, 1.57 every 100 patients/year using the LA and 0.94 every 100 patients/year applying the EXPAND definition. Both the data-driven definitions were well calibrated, with a p-value of the Calibration Slope test higher than 0.05 (LA=0.55; EXPAND definition=0.57). The AIC (LA=4301; EXPAND definition=5510) and the R-Square (LA=0.15 vs EXPAND definition=0.05), were in favor of the LA. The LA showed a greater discrimination power (AUC: 0.83 vs 0.65) and a higher sensitivity (77.1% vs 38.0%) in comparison to the EXPAND definition. Both definitions showed similar specificity (88.0% vs 91.5%). The PPV and the NPV were both higher using the LA than those obtained by the EXPAND definition (37.5% vs 29.5%; 97.6% vs 94.0%, respectively).

Conclusions

An accurate definition of SP transition is needed for a timely and efficacious treatment of SPMS patients. Real-world data from the Italian MS Registry suggests that data-driven definitions had a greater ability to capture SP transition than neurologist’s definition and that the global accuracy of LA seems to be higher than a definition based on the EXPAND trial inclusion criteria.

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