Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology
Department of Clinical Neuroscience

Author Of 11 Presentations

Biomarkers and Bioinformatics Poster Presentation

P0080 - Exploring neurofilament light in CSF as a biomarker for multiple sclerosis in clinical practice (ID 586)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0080
Presentation Topic
Biomarkers and Bioinformatics

Abstract

Background

Neurofilament light (NFL), a biomarker of axonal damage and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS), has been increasingly recognized for prognostic and therapeutic decisions.

Objectives

To assess the sensitivity and specificity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NFL for disease activity and to evaluate its prognostic value in predicting disease severity and conversion from relapsing-remitting (RRMS) to secondary progressive MS (SPMS).

Methods

Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of RRMS (n=769) who had determined NFL in CSF as part of the diagnostic work-up or from assessments as part from regular clinical visits between 2001 and 2018 were retrospectively identified in the Swedish MS registry. Measurements over time of disease activity (clinical relapses and lesion formation on MRI) and disability (EDSS) were retrieved. We assessed NFL levels in relation to concomitant clinical and MRI activity and as outcome for treatment response.

Results

Patients with a concurrent clinical relapse had significantly higher NFL concentrations (median NFL no relapse 278 ng/L, relapsed 1122 ng/L, p<0.001) and a correlation with relapse severity was observed (p<0.001). Patients with gadolinium-enhancing lesions had higher median NFL levels (1414 ng/L) than those without (426 ng/L, p<0.001) and NFL levels correlated with the number of gadolinium enhancing lesions (p<0.001). CSF NFL showed sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 77.4% to disease activity (relapses and/or MRI activity). High NFL at diagnosis (n=414) was independently associated with worsening of disability and predicted progression to EDSS≥3 (n=128, p<0.001, HR 0.566 95% CI 0,413-0,711) and conversion to secondary progressive MS (n=39, p=0.0003, HR=0,380 95% CI 0,225-0,641). In a subset of patients (n=159), NFL was analysed at baseline and at follow-up (median time between LPs 23.7 months). Patients who switched from a first-line to a second-line therapy (n=65) exhibited significant reduction in NFL concentrations (p<0.001). However, patients who did not receive disease modifying therapy (DMT) (n=32), had first-line therapy (n=40), or switched to a third-line treatment (n=22) between baseline and follow-up did not show a significant decrease in their CSF NFL levels (p=0.975, p=0.658, and p=0.059 respectively).

Conclusions

Since 2001 CSF NFL has been part of the clinical assessment at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg. Thus, the results of this study are based on a real-life material and we can confirm the utility of NFL as a biomarker in MS. Our data underline NFL as a sensitive biomarker of disease activity, its usefulness for prediction of disability and clinical course and for monitoring DMT response. Serum/plasma NFL is most likely to show similar properties but probably at a lower precision.

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Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management Poster Presentation

P0275 - A Swedish Post-Market Surveillance Study of the Long-Term Effectiveness and Safety of Teriflunomid (IMSE 4) for Patients Treated at least 36 Months (ID 1481)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0275
Presentation Topic
Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management

Abstract

Background

Background: Teriflunomid (TFM) is an oral therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which has been included in the Swedish post-market surveillance study “Immunomodulation and Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology” (IMSE).

Objectives

Objectives: To assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of TFM for patients treated in a real-world setting over time.

Methods

Methods: A large majority of MS patients are registered into the nationwide Swedish Neuro Registry (NeuroReg). The IMSE 4 study obtains descriptive data of adverse events (AEs), Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale (MSSS), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), European Quality of Life - Five Dimensions Test (EQ-5D) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) from NeuroReg. Effectiveness measures were assessed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and drug survival using the Kaplan-Meier curve.

Results

Results: 609 TFM-treated patients had been included in the IMSE 4 study from March 2014 to June 2020, 70% were female and mean age at treatment start was 46 years. Mean treatment duration was 27 months and 89% of the patients had RRMS. The most common prior treatment was interferon beta or glatiramer acetate (39%) and 17% of the patients were treatment naïve. The overall one- two- and three- year drug survival rates were 73%, 59% and 48% respectively. 307 (50%) patients had discontinued treatment at some point, of which 34% started rituximab treatment (36% had no new treatment registered). The most common reasons for discontinuation were AEs (42%) and lack of effect (40%).

204 patients had been continuously treated with TFM for ≥36 months and significant changes in mean baseline values compared to values at 36 months were noted only for EDSS (2.0 ± 1.6 to 2.3 ± 1.8, n=49). All other clinical measures were stable.

A total of 68 AEs were reported of which 20 events were classified as serious (S). The most common AE category was skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders for both serious and non-serious (NS) AEs (S: 25%, NS: 21%).

Conclusions

Conclusions: NeuroReg proves to function well as a post-marketing drug surveillance platform, providing data regarding drug effectiveness and AEs. Patients starting TMF are older at treatment start than patients initiating most other DMTs, which may explain the lack of significant improvement in most clinical measures and the negative outcome of the EDSS scores. A longer follow-up period is needed to assess the real-world effectiveness and safety of TMF.

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Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management Poster Presentation

P0276 - A Swedish Post-Market Surveillance Study: Long-Term Effectiveness and Safety of Cladribine Tablets (IMSE 10) for Patients Treated at least 12 Months (ID 1477)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0276
Presentation Topic
Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management

Abstract

Background

Background: Cladribine is a deoxyadenosine analogue prodrug. Cladribine tablets (CT) are administered in two courses, 12 months apart, for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). CT are included in the Swedish post-market surveillance study “Immunomodulation and Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology” (IMSE).

Objectives

Objective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of CT in a real-world setting with focus on patients treated at least 12 months.

Methods

Methods: Descriptive data of Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale (MSSS), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), European Quality of Life - 5 Dimensions Test (EQ-5D), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), relapses and Adverse Events (AEs) is obtained from the nationwide Swedish Neuro Registry (NeuroReg). Effectiveness measures were assessed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and relapse rates were tested using the paired samples T-test.

Results

Results: 85 patients were included in the IMSE 10 study since CT were introduced on the Swedish market in April 2018. 42 patients were treated for at least 12 months. Five AEs were reported since the study start, four were classified as infections and infestations.

25 % of the entire cohort was treated with CT as their first MS drug. 13 % were treated with natalizumab and 12 % with dimethyl fumarate prior to CT. Five AEs were reported since the study start, four were classified as infections and infestations.

Relapse data was available for 27/42 patients in the 12-month cohort. The number of reported relapses decreased significantly from 208.6 per 1,000 patient years before treatment start to 83.6 during treatment. Only three patients in this cohort experienced a relapse during treatment of which two were during the first treatment year.

Significant improvements in mean values at 12 months of treatment compared to baseline were noted for MSSS for the 12-month cohort (n=17). All other tests remained stable but significantly unchanged after one year of treatment.

Lymphocyte levels decreased from a mean of 2.4 x 109/L at treatment start (n=8) to 1.2 x 109/L after 12 months of treatment (n=6) in the 12-month cohort. No patients were below the 0.8 x 109/L limit at 12 months.

Conclusions

Conclusions: CT treatment demonstrates clinical stability in patients treated 12 months. However, continued follow-up is needed to assess the effectiveness and safety of CT over a longer time to assess if these results sustain after the final treatment course has been administered.

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Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management Poster Presentation

P0277 - A Swedish Post-Market Surveillance Study: Long-Term Effectiveness and Safety of Dimethyl Fumarate (IMSE 5) for Patients Treated at least 36 Months (ID 1634)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0277
Presentation Topic
Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management

Abstract

Background

Background: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an oral therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). DMF is included in the Swedish post-market surveillance study “Immunomodulation and Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology” (IMSE).

Objectives

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of DMF with focus on patients treated at least 36 months in the IMSE study.

Methods

Methods: Descriptive data of Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale (MSSS), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), European Quality of Life - 5 Dimensions Test (EQ-5D), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Adverse Events (AEs) is obtained from the nationwide Swedish Neuro Registry (NeuroReg). Effectiveness measures were assessed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and drug survival using the Kaplan-Meier curve.

Results

Results: 2349 DMF-treated patients were included between March 2014 and June 2020 with an overall drug survival rate of 45%. The main reasons for discontinuation were AEs (50%) and lack of effect (30%). 186 AEs were reported to the Swedish Medical Products Agency, of which 59 were serious. A total of 8 patients have died during DMF treatment or within 6 months of treatment discontinuation.

36 month cohort: 940 patients had continuous treatment for at least 36 months. This cohort had a mean age of 42 years and a mean treatment duration of 56 months. The majority (50%) had switched from interferon or glatiramer acetate, and (24%) were treatment naïve (TN).

Significant improvements in mean values at 36 months of treatment compared to baseline for the 36-month cohort were noted for MSSS, SDMT, MSIS-29 Psychological, EQ-5D and VAS. When TN patients were solely assessed (n=230) improvements were noted for all above mentioned measures as well as MSIS-29 Psychological. The remaining patients in the cohort; treatment experienced patients (n=710) displayed significant improvements only for MSSS, MSIS-29 Psychological and EQ-5D. TN patients had a mean duration from diagnosis to treatment start of 5 months compared to 91 months for the remaining cohort. TN were also younger than the remaining cohort (37 years vs 43 years).

Conclusions

Conclusions: DMF demonstrates clinical improvements in patients treated 36 months, more pronounced in TN patients. However; due to the high discontinuation rate there is an unavoidable selection bias. Continued follow up is needed to assess the effectiveness and safety of DMF over longer time periods in a real world setting.

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Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management Poster Presentation

P0304 - Can the induction of thyroid autoimmune antibodies after alemtuzumab treatment predict secondary autoimmune thyroid disorder? (ID 663)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0304
Presentation Topic
Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management

Abstract

Background

Alemtuzumab (ALZ) belongs to the immune reconstitution therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). ALZ therapy is associated with an increased risk for secondary autoimmune diseases (SAD), in particular autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD).

Objectives

To investigate if the occurrence of thyroid auto-antibodies (Ab), after initiating ALZ treatment, could predict the development of AITD.

Methods

All RRMS patients in Sweden initiating ALZ (n=124, 74 females) 2014-2019, were consecutively included in this prospective observational study. Plasma samples were obtained prior to ALZ and at 6, 12 and 24 months of follow-up for analyses of thyroglobulin Ab (TgAb), thyroperoxidase Ab (TPOAb) and thyrotropin receptor Ab (TRAb). Monthly serum samples for free thyroxin and thyroid stimulating hormone, as well as clinical symptoms were followed to detect AITD.

Results

At mean follow-up of 4.5 (SD 1.6) years 50 patients (40%) had developed AITD (43 Graves’ disease). Mean time from baseline to AITD was 2.1 (SD 1.6) years, in 62 % the development of thyroid Ab preceded AITD. At baseline 5% (n=6/114) patients had positive TRAb, 3% (n=3/115) positive TgAb, and 3% (n=3/115) positive TPOAb. Corresponding values at 6 months were 3% (n=2/78), 6% (n=5/85), 5% (n=4/86), at 12 months 14% (n=14/102), 15% (n=15/102), 18% (n=18/102), and at 24 months 22% (n=16/73), 19% (n=15/78), 23% (n=18/78). No treatment was given for AITD in 4% (n=2/50), 14% (n=7/50) had levothyroxine (L-T4) only, 36% (n=18/50) high dose anti-thyroid drug (ATD) with L-T4, 34% (n=17/50) thyroidectomy, 4% (n=2/50) ATD alone, 2% (n=1/50) radioactive iodine and for 6% (n=3/50) data were missing. Mean time from detection of auto-Ab to diagnosis of AITD was 4 (SD 11.3) months. At baseline 9 patients had thyroid Ab, but only those with TRAb (n=3) developed AITD. The OR for AITD was 1.51 given TRAb compared to those with no TRAb at baseline. At 24 months, 27 patients were positive for either of the thyroid Ab, 93% (25/27) of these developed AITD. In contrast, only, 30% (15/51) of those thyroid Ab negative developed AITD (p<0.0001 x2- test).

Conclusions

AITD was developed in 40% of ALZ treated patients, at 24 months 21% had AITD which was similar with that reported from the pivotal studies of ALZ. Thyroid Ab preceded AITD in 62 % of cases. In contrast, the risk of AITD was low in cases without thyroid Ab. Although, monitoring thyroid Ab may be useful identifying patients at high risk for AITD, this has not so far had any therapeutic incentives.

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Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management Poster Presentation

P0331 - Efficacy and safety in patients treated with Natalizumab for at least 10 years - Real-world data from a Swedish national surveillance study (IMSE 1) (ID 673)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0331
Presentation Topic
Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management

Abstract

Background

Natalizumab (NTZ) is a highly effective disease modulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Post-marketing surveillance is important for evaluation of long-term safety and effectiveness in a real-world setting. To this end, the “Immunomodulation and Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology Study” (IMSE 1) was initiated upon NTZ launch in Sweden (August 2006).

Objectives

To follow-up the long-term effectiveness and safety of NTZ in a real-world setting, with focus on patients treated at least 10 years.

Methods

IMSE 1 includes patients starting NTZ treatment and data is collected from the nationwide Swedish Neuro Registry (NeuroReg). Adverse events (AEs), JC-virus status (JCV) and clinical effectiveness measures are registered in NeuroReg prospectively. Effectiveness measures were assessed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test.

Results

A total of 3291 patients were included in the IMSE 1 study from August 2006 until June 2020 (72% female; mean age 36 years; 80% RRMS; mean treatment duration 50 months). 171/3291 patients (5%) had been treated for at least 120 months (73% female; men age 36 years; 87% RRMS; mean treatment duration 139 months). A total of 64% (110/171) were treated with interferons or glatiramer acetate prior to NTZ treatment. Over the duration of follow-up discontinued 21% (35/171) their NTZ treatment of which 46% (16/35) discontinued due to JCV positive (JCV+). In total, 27% (46/171) of these patients were JCV+ with a mean JCV index of 1.2±1.0 (4% missing data). The mean number of relapses were reduced from 0.84 one year before NTZ treatment start to 0.00 during the first treatment year (12% missing data). All clinical effectiveness measures (Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale (MSSS), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT)) showed improvement in mean between baseline and 120 months. However, only MSSS, MSIS-29 psychological and SDMT were statistically significant. Over the entire observation time, 114 Serious AEs had been reported to the Swedish Medical Product Agency and included nine cases (2 fatal) of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) of which eight between year 2008 and 2012, and one in 2018. 17 patients died during or within 6 months of last NTZ infusion. None were judged to be directly associated with NTZ.

Conclusions

NTZ is generally well tolerated with sustained effectiveness regarding cognitive, physical and psychological measures, as well as relapse-control.

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Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management Poster Presentation

P0361 - Non-thyroid secondary autoimmune diseases after alemtuzumab treatment: real-world data from a nationwide prospective observational cohort in Sweden. (ID 664)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0361
Presentation Topic
Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management

Abstract

Background

Alemtuzumab (ALZ) belongs to the immune reconstitution therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). ALZ therapy is associated with an increased risk for secondary autoimmune diseases (SAD), in particular autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD), but there are also an association to increased risk of immune mediated thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and other rare autoimmune disorders.

Objectives

To investigate the occurrence of SAD, other than AITD, and if auto-antibodies (Ab) could predict the development of non-thyroid SAD (NTSAD).

Methods

All RRMS patients in Sweden initiating ALZ (n=124, 74 females) 2014-2019, were consecutively included in this prospective observational study. Plasma samples were obtained prior to ALZ and at 6, 12 and 24 months of follow-up for analyses of glutamic acid decarboxylase Ab (GADAb), antinuclear Ab (ANA), smooth muscle Ab (SMA), antimitochondrial Ab (AMA) and anti-glomerular basement membrane Ab (GBMAb). Monthly blood and urine tests, as well as clinical symptoms, were followed to detect NTSAD.

Results

At mean follow-up of 4.5 (SD 1.6) years 8 patients (6.5%) had developed NTSAD; 5 ITP (4%), 2 neutropenia (2%), and 1 warm antibody haemolytic anaemia (1%). Mean time from baseline to respective NTSAD was 2.1 (SD 1.7) years, 0.6 (SD 0.7) years, and 5.5 years. At their diagnoses positive auto-Ab against platelets, neutrophils and erythrocytes, were present in 1, 0 and 1 ALZ treated patient respectively. No treatment was given for ITP in 3, 1 had intravenous immunoglobulin, romiplostim, corticosteroids, 1 had platelet transfusion, corticosteroids. 1 with neutropenia had granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. No treatment was given for the case with haemolytic anaemia. At baseline 1% (n=1/115) had positive GADAb, 12% (n=13/112) positive ANA, 4% (n=5/112) positive SMA, 0% (n=0/112) positive AMA and 3% (n=3/115) positive GBMAb. Besides these, the number of patients who at least once during the follow-up were positive for the auto-Ab that we regulatory checked for was as follows; 1% (n=1/124) GADAb, 10% (n=13/124) ANA, 3% (n=4/124) SMA, 0% (n=0/124) AMA and 0% (n=0/124) GBMAb, none of these developed any associated NTSAD.

Conclusions

In this real-world cohort study the occurrence of NTSAD, after ALZ treatment, was mainly hematologic, most frequent ITP (4%) and the majority required no treatment. Although the occurrence of auto-Ab was slightly more common after ALZ, compared to the general population, no corresponding NTSAD was found. This was in contrast to thyroid auto-Ab which often precede thyroid disease.

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Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management Poster Presentation

P0380 - Real-world data of peginterferon beta-1a from a Swedish national post-marketing surveillance study (IMSE 6) – effectiveness and safety profile (ID 677)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0380
Presentation Topic
Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management

Abstract

Background

Subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a (PegIFN) was approved for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Europe 2014. The clinical trial program showed that PegIFN reduced the relapse rate and proportion with disability progression compared to placebo. At its launch in Sweden, PegIFN was included in the Swedish “Immunomodulation and Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology Study” (IMSE 6), providing possibilities to track long-term effectiveness and safety in a population-based setting.

Objectives

To follow-up the long-term effectiveness and safety of PegIFN treatment in Swedish patients in a real-world context.

Methods

Data was obtained from the nationwide Swedish Neuro Registry (NeuroReg) between June 2015 and May 2020. Effectiveness measures were assessed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and drug survival using the Kaplan-Meier curve.

Results

A total of 364 patients (78% female; 87% RRMS; mean age at treatments start 43 years) were followed up to 57 months (mean 20 months), of which 200 (55%) patients had been treated for at least 12 months. The majority of the patients had switched from other injectables (164 patients, 45%) or were treatment naïve (90 patients, 25%) prior to treatment with PegIFN. Over the duration of the follow-up, 68% (247/364) patients discontinued their PegIFN treatment for various reasons (60% adverse events, 24% lack of effect) and switched mainly to rituximab (105 patients, 43%). The overall drug survival was 32%, 40% for men and 30% for women. The one- and two-year drug survival rate was 57% and 40%, respectively. The mean number of relapses were reduced from 0.35 one year before treatment start to 0.11 one year after (35% missing data). All clinical effectiveness measures (Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Severity Scale (MSSS), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), European Quality of Life – 5-Dimension test (EQ-5D), Visual Analogue Score (VAS) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT)) remained stable. Statistically significant changes were observed in SDMT (p=0.027). A total number of 18 adverse events (6 serious) were reported to Swedish Medical Product Agency.

Conclusions

These findings are consistent with PegIFN being a safe disease modifying treatment, however, a relatively high proportion of patients switched due to adverse events. All clinical effectiveness measures remained stable in patients treated with PegIFN for at least 12 months in this nationwide population-based real-world study. Longer follow up is needed to address the long-term effectiveness.

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Epidemiology Poster Presentation

P0491 - Safety Outcomes after Treatment with Alemtuzumab or Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Sclerosis Patients (ID 584)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0491
Presentation Topic
Epidemiology

Abstract

Background

Induction therapy that cause long-term cessation of disease-specific inflammation is an emerging treatment option for multiple sclerosis (MS). Alemtuzumab was the first induction-type therapy to be approved for relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) in 2013/2014, while autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) is an induction-type medical procedure which has been used to treat MS since 1995 and was approved for use in RRMS in Sweden in 2016.

Objectives

This study aimed to assess safety outcomes for alemtuzumab and AHSCT, compared to non-induction disease-modifying therapies.

Methods

We performed a population-based cohort study linking the Swedish MS Register to national healthcare registers. Alemtuzumab, AHSCT, and a matched reference group of non-induction therapies (natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, rituximab, fingolimod) were included if started between 2008 and 2017. Main outcomes were death, thyroid disease, non-thyroid autoimmune disease, and infection.

Results

We identified 132 alemtuzumab and 139 AHSCT-treated patients, together with 2486 matched patients treated with non-induction therapies. Four patients in the alemtuzumab group died (incidence rate [IR] per 1000 person years=8.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.3-22.0) compared to one patient in the AHSCT group (IR=1.7, 95% CI=0.0-9.6) and a mortality rate in the reference group of 0.7 (95% CI=0.3-1.3). Thyroid disease was most frequent in the alemtuzumab group (IR=109, 95% CI=75-154), but also occurred more often for AHSCT (IR=34, 95% CI=18-56) compared to the reference (IR=5.3 95% CI=3.9-7.1). The incidence of non-thyroid autoimmune disease was similar in all groups. IR for infection occurring ≥6 months from therapy initiation was 53 (95% CI=30-87) for alemtuzumab, 108 (95% CI=75-150) for AHSCT, and 51 (95% CI=46-57) for the reference.

Conclusions

We confirmed a high incidence of thyroid disease in alemtuzumab- and to a smaller extent also AHSCT-treated patients, and found a higher incidence of infections for AHSCT compared to both alemtuzumab and non-induction therapies. Interestingly, the incidence of first-ever non-thyroid autoimmune events was similar between the groups. Disorders relating to reproductive organs and fertility were common in the AHSCT group, especially in females. Other adverse events were rare. Overall mortality was slightly higher in the alemtuzumab group, but only one of the four deaths was clearly linked to the treatment.

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Imaging Poster Presentation

P0575 - Exploring demyelination and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (ID 680)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0575
Presentation Topic
Imaging

Abstract

Background

Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity for detecting inflammatory disease activity of the brain, but is time-consuming, only semi-quantitative and rely on subjective assessments. On the contrary, the technique called ‘synthetic MRI’ (SyMRI) uses a single pulse sequence, can create contrast-weighted images from quantitative maps based on relaxometry and simultaneously provides automatic brain volume and myelin measurements. All this information is delivered after a single 6-minute scan and software with post-processing time less than 1 minute. Measuring the change in brain volume and myelin content in vivo could provide new insights into the relationship between two main pathological processes in multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelination and neurodegeneration and the impact of disease modifying treatments (DMTs) on these processes.

Objectives

The aim was to assess brain volume and myelin content over time in patients with newly diagnosed MS and in healthy control persons.

Methods

We prospectively included 116 patients newly diagnosed with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, and 51 healthy control subjects (HC). All patients initiated DMT and were dichotomized into those with disease activity (relapse and/or new or enlarging lesions on MRI) (n=74) and those without disease activity (n=42) at follow up. The MRI was performed at baseline in both groups and in patients at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months, and in HC only at 24 months. Brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and myelin parenchymal fraction (MyPF) of the brain were calculated via SyMRI software.

Results

At baseline, there was no significant difference between HC and newly diagnosed MS in BPF (89% and 89.1%, respectively, p=0.97), but HC had significantly lower MyPF than patients (14.1% and 14.9%, respectively, p<0.001). At 36 months follow-up, the mean change of BPF and MyPF in patients was -0.9% (±1.6) p<0.001 and 0.3 % (±1.3) p=0.022, respectively. Patients without disease activity had significantly higher MyPF compared with patients with disease activity during follow-up time (15.7% and 14.9%, respectively, p=0.009). At 24 month follow-up, BPF and MyPF were unchanged in HC compared to baseline (p=0.94 and p=0.44, respectively).

Conclusions

SyMRI showed the development of significant brain atrophy in RRMS after 3 years of follow-up and signs of increased demyelination in patients with disease activity. However, patients had unexpectedly higher MyPF than controls at baseline and the MyPF increased in stable RRMS at follow-up. This might indicate increased remyelination. However, the sensitivity of SyMRI to quantify the myelin fraction of the brain deserves further validation.

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Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0920 - The effect of alemtuzumab treatment in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: real-world data from a four-year prospective one center study. (ID 240)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0920
Presentation Topic
Observational Studies

Abstract

Background

Background: Alemtuzumab (ALZ) belongs to the immune reconstitution therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). ALZ is used as second or third line treatment in clinical practise, thus the real-world population treated with ALZ is markedly different from the populations in the pivotal trials of ALZ.

Objectives

Objectives: To assess basic characteristics and therapeutic effects on clinical and imaging parameters of disease activity for RRMS patients selected for ALZ.

Methods

Methods: RRMS patients were consecutively included at the MS Centre, Gothenburg. Patients were clinically assessed with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), occurrence of clinical relapses and with cerebral MRI at baseline, month 12, 24, 36 and 48.

Results

Resluts: 51 (31 females) RRMS patients, mean age and mean disease duration of 35.5 (±7.1) respectively 7.1 (±5.4) years were included. Prior to baseline 6 patients had first line treatment, 38 had second line and 7 were naïve. Reasons to switch to ALZ; break through disease activity despite disease modifying treatment (DMT) (n=23), side effects (n=3), positive JC virus antibody test during natalizumab (n=18), highly active disease from disease onset (n=7). All patients received the first course of ALZ, 50 the second, 14 a third, and 2 a fourth course. At baseline, month 12, 24, 36 and 48 median EDSS was 2 (0-7.5), 1.5 (0-7), 1.5 (0-7.5), 1.5 (0-7.5) and 1.5 (0-7), respectively. At 48 months 34 patients were relapse free, and the annual relapse rate was 0.12. Baseline MRI revealed high lesion load; T2 lesions >20 (n=35), T2 lesions 10-20 (n=12), T2 lesions 1-9 (n=4), 36 patients had no contrast enhancement. Upon follow-up at 12, 24 , 36 and 48 months, 39 patients, 42, 45 and 38 had no new or enlarged T2 lesions respectively, corresponding number with no contrast enhancement was 43, 45, 47, and 40. Mean brain parenchymal fraction at baseline was 0.862 (±0.037, n=43) and was unchanged at follow-up. 23 patients met No Evidence of Disease Activity (NEDA) at 48 months. 9 (18%) patients have switched from ALZ to another DMT (rituximab n=6, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation n=3) due to disease activity.

Conclusions

Conclusions: This real-world population confirms that ALZ as second or third line treatment effectively reduced disease activity. Although most of our patients had previously failed on DMT the proportion of progression free survival (82%) and NEDA (45%) were of similar magnitude as those reported from the pivotal trials CARE-MS I&II.

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