Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal
Immunology

Author Of 1 Presentation

Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management Oral Presentation

PS09.03 - Predictive biomarkers of the development of autoimmunity in patients treated with alemtuzumab

Speakers
Presentation Number
PS09.03
Presentation Topic
Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management
Lecture Time
09:45 - 09:57

Abstract

Background

Alemtuzumab has proven to be an effective treatment for patients with highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). However, its use has been limited by adverse events (AEs) as secondary autoimmunity, being the most frequent those involving the thyroid gland, observed in around 40% of patients.

Objectives

To explore whether patient blood lymphocyte profile before alemtuzumab treatment initiation can identify patients with an increased risk of developing later autoimmunity.

Methods

A multicentre prospective longitudinal study was performed, including fifty‐four Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) patients diagnosed in five Spanish hospitals. Patient blood samples were collected before initiating treatment with alemtuzumab. Autoimmune AEs were defined as the development, at any point within 2 years of follow-up, of any autoimmune thyroid-associated event, immune thrombocytopenia and/or autoimmune nephropathy. Differences were assessed using Man-Whitney U tests. Cut-off values were established using ROC curves to predict autoimmune AEs. Odds ratios were calculated by Fisher tests.

Results

Fifty‐four RRMS patients, 36 (66.7%) women, with a median (range) age of 28 (13–67) years and median (range) follow-up of 6 (0-20) years. Fourteen patients (25.9%) experienced autoimmune AEs, and all of them were dysthyroidism. No immune thrombocytopenia or nephropathies were observed. No statistical differences were found in clinical and demographic characteristics between patients who developed autoimmune AEs and those who did not. Patients who experienced autoimmune AEs before treatment onset had a higher percentage of blood CD19+ B cells (p=0.001), with a higher relative percentage of naïve B cells and plasmablasts. When explored total cell numbers, only plasmablast levels remained significant (p=0.02). A lower risk of autoimmune AEs after alemtuzumab was observed among patients with less than 7.6% of blood CD19+ B cells [odds ratio (OR) 16, confidence interval (CI) 3.86–58.95, p<0.0001] or less than 0.13% of plasmablast cells [OR 9.33, CI 2.17–42.65, p=0.002].

Conclusions

A low percentages of blood CD19+ B cells or plasmablasts before Alemtuzumab treatment predicted a lower risk of autoimmune AEs.

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Presenter Of 1 Presentation

Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management Oral Presentation

PS09.03 - Predictive biomarkers of the development of autoimmunity in patients treated with alemtuzumab

Speakers
Presentation Number
PS09.03
Presentation Topic
Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management
Lecture Time
09:45 - 09:57

Abstract

Background

Alemtuzumab has proven to be an effective treatment for patients with highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). However, its use has been limited by adverse events (AEs) as secondary autoimmunity, being the most frequent those involving the thyroid gland, observed in around 40% of patients.

Objectives

To explore whether patient blood lymphocyte profile before alemtuzumab treatment initiation can identify patients with an increased risk of developing later autoimmunity.

Methods

A multicentre prospective longitudinal study was performed, including fifty‐four Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) patients diagnosed in five Spanish hospitals. Patient blood samples were collected before initiating treatment with alemtuzumab. Autoimmune AEs were defined as the development, at any point within 2 years of follow-up, of any autoimmune thyroid-associated event, immune thrombocytopenia and/or autoimmune nephropathy. Differences were assessed using Man-Whitney U tests. Cut-off values were established using ROC curves to predict autoimmune AEs. Odds ratios were calculated by Fisher tests.

Results

Fifty‐four RRMS patients, 36 (66.7%) women, with a median (range) age of 28 (13–67) years and median (range) follow-up of 6 (0-20) years. Fourteen patients (25.9%) experienced autoimmune AEs, and all of them were dysthyroidism. No immune thrombocytopenia or nephropathies were observed. No statistical differences were found in clinical and demographic characteristics between patients who developed autoimmune AEs and those who did not. Patients who experienced autoimmune AEs before treatment onset had a higher percentage of blood CD19+ B cells (p=0.001), with a higher relative percentage of naïve B cells and plasmablasts. When explored total cell numbers, only plasmablast levels remained significant (p=0.02). A lower risk of autoimmune AEs after alemtuzumab was observed among patients with less than 7.6% of blood CD19+ B cells [odds ratio (OR) 16, confidence interval (CI) 3.86–58.95, p<0.0001] or less than 0.13% of plasmablast cells [OR 9.33, CI 2.17–42.65, p=0.002].

Conclusions

A low percentages of blood CD19+ B cells or plasmablasts before Alemtuzumab treatment predicted a lower risk of autoimmune AEs.

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Author Of 1 Presentation

Biomarkers and Bioinformatics Poster Presentation

P0066 - Dimethyl fumarate decreases serum neurofilament light chain in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. (ID 924)

Presentation Number
P0066
Presentation Topic
Biomarkers and Bioinformatics

Abstract

Background

Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) levels are associated with disease activity and prognosis in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Treatment with second-line disease modifying therapies (DMTs) leads to a reduction of sNfL, but little is known regarding first-line DMTs as dimethyl fumarate (DMF).

Objectives

To explore changes of sNfL levels in RRMS patients during treatment with DMF. To evaluate the potential role of sNfL measurement to predict an optimal treatment response.

Methods

Blood samples from 64 consecutive RRMS patients initiating DMF at Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal were collected at baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 months thereafter. sNfL levels were measured using a sensitive Single Molecular Array (SIMOA) assay (Quanterix). Patients were classified into No Evidence of Disease Activity (NEDA) and Ongoing Disease Activity (ODA) according the presence/absence of relapses, EDSS progression and/or MRI activity during the first year.

Results

Age at treatment initiation was 40.6 [33.2-46.3] years (median [25-75%IQR]) and EDSS was 1.5 [1.5-2.5]. Forty eight (75%) patients received other previous DMTs, seven of them were second-line DMTs. 66% of patients had evidence of disease activity at DMF initiation. Baseline sNfL levels were higher in patients who had evidence of disease activity at that time compared with patients who had not (12.2 pg/ml Vs. 8.8 pg/ml, p=0.024). No differences were found in baseline sNfL levels between naïve and previously treated patients, or between patients treated with first and second line DMTs. After 12 months of DMF treatment, 44 (69%) patients were NEDA and 20 (31%) were ODA. Baseline sNfL levels were higher in ODA patients compared to NEDA patients (14.6 pg/ml Vs. 9.2 pg/ml, p=0.016). A cut-off value of 12 pg/ml was established to predict NEDA status (OR=4.7; 95%CI: 1.6–15.7; p=0.008). After one year of DMF, sNfL levels decreased by 34.4% (p<0.0001). Both NEDA and ODA patients experienced a progressive sNfL reduction during the first year of treatment. However, this reduction was observed earlier in NEDA patients (three months after DMF initiation) than in ODA patients (six months).

Conclusions

DMF induced a progressive decrease in sNfL concentration during the first year of treatment. This reduction was delayed in ODA patients. Patients with basal sNFL values ≤ 12 pg/ml showed increased probability to achieve NEDA status at 12 months.

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