F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd

Author Of 1 Presentation

Clinical Trials Late Breaking Abstracts

LB01.02 - Phase 2 clinical trial evidence that a retinoid-X receptor agonist promotes remyelination in people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

Abstract

Background

Retinoid acid X receptor [RXR] gamma agonists promote oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and remyelination following experimental demyelination.

Objectives

To assess the safety and efficacy of bexarotene, a non-specific RXR agonist licensed for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, as a remyelinating therapy in people with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

Methods

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2a trial (Cambridge Centre for Myelin Repair: CCMR-One), participants aged 18-50 years with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, stable on dimethyl fumarate for at least 6 months, were randomised to bexarotene 300mg/m2 or placebo for 6 months. The primary efficacy outcome was change in mean lesional magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) for lesions whose baseline MTR was below the median lesional MTR for that patient. The secondary efficacy outcome was change in full-field visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in eyes with electrophysiological evidence of optic neuropathy (baseline latency >118ms). We analysed by intention to treat.

Results

52 patients were randomised 1:1 to receive six months of bexarotene or placebo. Two placebo patients withdrew before receiving study drug and one bexarotene patient withdrew consent during the trial. All bexarotene patients experienced adverse effects, notably central hypothyroidism (26 [100%]) and hypertriglyceridaemia (24 [92%, mean maximum of 6.79 mmol/L ,SD 4.4]; as well as rash (13 [50%]) and neutropenia (10 [38%]). Two discontinued placebo because of adverse events and five discontinued bexarotene because of rash [2], neutropenia, triglyceridaemia and mood disturbance. The primary efficacy outcome was negative (mean submedian lesion MTR change was 0.25pu in the bexarotene group versus 0.09pu in the placebo group, p=0.54), but in an exploratory, lesion-level analysis, though treatment difference in submedian lesions was too small to achieve significance, it was statistically significantly greater than in supermedian lesions (p=0·007). This suggests that bexarotene has a biological effect on MTR and that this effect is dependent on baseline lesional MTR. This interpretation is supported by the finding that bexarotene treatment reduced full field visual evoked potential latency compared to placebo in the 52 eyes with delayed VEPS at baseline, by 4·66 ms/eye (95% CI -8·38 -0·93; p=0·014) and in all eyes, by a per-protocol analysis, by 4.02ms/eye (P=0.015).

Conclusions

Despite a negative primary efficacy outcome, evidence from both magnetisation transfer ratio imaging and visual evoked potentials suggest that a retinoic X receptor agonist, bexarotene, promotes remyelination in people with multiple sclerosis. We have also a heterogeneous response of MS lesions to a drug promoting remyelination. Although bexarotene’s safety profile precludes its widespread use, these data support efforts to develop a selective RXR-gamma agonist.

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Author Of 2 Presentations

Clinical Trials Poster Presentation

P0216 - Long-term reduction of relapse rate and 48-week confirmed disability progression after 6.5 years of ocrelizumab treatment in patients with RMS (ID 844)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0216
Presentation Topic
Clinical Trials

Abstract

Background

The efficacy and safety of ocrelizumab (OCR) in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) were demonstrated in the 96-week controlled double-blind period (DBP) of the Phase III OPERA I (NCT01247324) and OPERA II (NCT01412333) trials.

Objectives

To assess the efficacy of switching from interferon (IFN) β-1a or maintaining OCR therapy on disease activity and confirmed disability progression (CDP) after 4.5 years of follow-up, in the open-label extension (OLE) of OPERA I and OPERA II.

Methods

In the DBP of OPERA I and OPERA II, patients were randomized to receive OCR or IFN β-1a. Patients completing the DBP either continued OCR (OCR-OCR) or switched from IFN β-1a to OCR (IFN-OCR) when entering the OLE period. Adjusted annualized relapse rate (ARR), time to onset of 48-week CDP (CDP48) and time to 48-week confirmed Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≥6.0 (time to require a walking aid) were analyzed up to Week 336.

Results

Overall, 79.2% of patients who entered the OLE period completed OLE Year 4.5. Adjusted ARR decreased year-on-year from the pre-switch year to OLE Year 4.5 in IFN-OCR switchers (pre-switch, 0.20; OLE Year 4.5, 0.06) and was maintained at low levels in OCR-OCR continuers (pre-switch, 0.12; OLE Year 4.5, 0.04). The rates of CDP48 were lower in OCR-OCR continuers vs IFN-OCR switchers at the end of the DBP (4.1% vs 8.5%; p<0.001) and at OLE Year 4.5 (16.0% vs 20.3%; p=0.05). The rates of patients requiring a walking aid were lower in OCR-OCR continuers vs IFN-OCR switchers at the end of the DBP (0.8% vs 3.1%; p=0.001) and at OLE Year 4.5 (5.1% vs 8.3%; p=0.024). Over the DBP and OLE periods, the risk of CDP48 was 28% lower (HR [95%CI]: 0.72 [0.56–0.93]; p=0.01) and the risk of requiring a walking aid was 46% lower (HR [95%CI]: 0.54 [0.35–0.83];p=0.004) in OCR-OCR continuers vs IFN-OCR switchers. The safety profile in the OLE was generally consistent with the DBP.

Conclusions

Switching from IFN β-1a to ocrelizumab at the start of the OLE period was associated with a rapid and robust reduction in ARR that was maintained through the 4.5-year follow-up of the OLE period. Compared with patients switching to ocrelizumab at the OLE, patients initiating ocrelizumab 2 years earlier accrued significant benefits on CDP48 and time to require a walking aid that were maintained vs the switch group through the 4.5 years of the OLE period.

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Clinical Trials Poster Presentation

P0237 - Sustained reduction in 48-week confirmed disability progression in patients with PPMS treated with ocrelizumab in the ORATORIO OLE: 7-year follow-up (ID 109)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0237
Presentation Topic
Clinical Trials

Abstract

Background

The efficacy and safety of ocrelizumab (OCR) in primary progressive multiple sclerosis were demonstrated vs placebo (PBO) in the Phase III ORATORIO study (NCT01194570).

Objectives

To assess the efficacy of switching to or maintaining OCR therapy on 48-week confirmed disability progression (CDP), in the open-label extension (OLE) of ORATORIO, over 7 years (360 weeks).

Methods

In the double-blind period (DBP), patients were randomized to OCR or PBO and followed for ≥120 weeks until a prespecified number of CDP events occurred. At DBP completion, patients remained on blinded treatment until the trial outcome was determined (extended controlled period; ECP). At OLE start, patients continued OCR (OCR-OCR) or switched from PBO to OCR (PBO-OCR). Time to 48-week CDP-EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score increase from baseline [BL] of ≥1 point if BL EDSS ≤5.5 or ≥0.5 points if BL EDSS >5.5), time to 48-week CDP on the 9-Hole Peg Test (CDP-9HPT; ≥20% increase from BL in timed 9HPT) and time to 48-week confirmed EDSS≥7 (wheelchair requirement) are presented up to Week 360.

Results

Overall, 72% of patients entered the OLE. At Week 168 (12 weeks after the first patients entered the OLE), the proportion of patients with 48-week CDP-EDSS in the PBO-OCR and OCR-OCR groups was 44.4% vs 30.5% (Δ=13.9%; p<0.001), respectively; at Week 360 the corresponding proportions were 65.7% vs 54.2% (Δ=11.6%; p=0.006). At Week 168, the proportion of patients with 48-week CDP-9HPT in the PBO-OCR and OCR-OCR groups was 27.9% vs 15.8% (Δ=12.1%; p<0.001); at Week 360 the corresponding proportions were 41.6% vs 31.1% (Δ=10.6%; p=0.014), respectively. At Week 168 the proportion of patients with 48-week confirmed EDSS≥7 in the PBO-OCR and OCR-OCR groups was 9.1% vs 4.8% (Δ=4.3%; p=0.054), respectively; at Week 360 the proportions were 21.7% vs 12.3% (Δ=9.4%; p=0.009). During the DBP+ECP+OLE, compared with the PBO-OCR group, continuous OCR treatment reduced the risk of CDP-EDSS by 31% (HR [95% CI]: 0.69 [0.56–0.86]; p<0.001), CDP-9HPT by 34% (HR [95% CI]: 0.66 [0.50–0.87]; p=0.003) and 48-week confirmed EDSS≥7 by 44% (HR [95% CI]: 0.56 [0.37–0.85]; p=0.006). Timed 25-Foot Walk, composite CDP and 24-week CDP will also be presented. The OLE safety profile was consistent with the DBP.

Conclusions

After 7 years, 48-week CDP outcomes favoured those on earlier and continuous OCR treatment. Patients initiating OCR 3–5 years earlier had a significantly reduced risk of requiring a wheelchair vs those switching from PBO.

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