University of Nottingham
Neurology

Author Of 1 Presentation

COVID-19 Late Breaking Abstracts

SS02.01 - COVID-19 in people with MS: A large community-based study of the UK MS Register

Speakers
Presentation Number
SS02.01
Presentation Topic
COVID-19
Lecture Time
10:45 - 10:57

Abstract

Background

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has introduced uncertainties into the multiple sclerosis (MS) community and the focus so far has been the severity of infection among people with MS (pwMS) who have COVID-19. This approach has left questions about the risk of contracting disease in pwMS unanswered which has implications as society gradually returns to normal.

Objectives

To evaluate the trend of COVID-19 incidence in pwMS, their behaviour in response to the outbreak, and the effect of their demographic and clinical characteristics on the likelihood of contracting COVID-19.

Methods

The United Kingdom MS Register (UKMSR) has been collecting demographic and MS related data since 2011 from pwMS all over the UK. On 17 March 2020, existing participants of the UKMSR were asked to join the COVID-19 study. The study was also advertised through social media. In this on-going study, pwMS answer a COVID-19 related survey at participation and a different follow-up survey every two weeks depending on whether they report COVID-19.

Results

We estimate the nationwide overall incidence of COVID-19 in pwMS as 10% (n=522) among 5237 participants until 24 June 2020. The weekly incidence peaked during the 2nd week after lockdown started on 23 March 2020 (13.2%) and remained high until it dropped to 3.5% in the 10th week. The mean (standard deviation) age of the study population was 52.4 (11.9), 76.1% (n=3985) were female, and 95.7% (n=5012) were of white ethnicity. PwMS with a higher web-based Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score are more likely to self-isolate (odds ratio [OR] 1.389, 95%CI [confidence interval] 1.333−1.447). PwMS who are taking disease modifying therapies (DMTs) and those with progressive MS tend to self-isolate more (OR 1.259, 95%CI 1.059−1.497 and OR 1.245, 95% CI 1.013−1.531, respectively). Older age, progressive MS, and white ethnicity were associated with a lower likelihood of having COVID-19 (OR 0.969, 95%CI 0.957−0.982 and OR 0.595, 95% 0.422−0.838 and OR 0.495, 95%CI 0.347−0.705, respectively). Gender, EDSS, MS Impact Scale version 29 scores and DMTs did not alter the likelihood of contracting COVID-19.

Conclusions

To our knowledge, this is the largest community-based study of COVID-19 in pwMS worldwide. The trend of COVID-19 in pwMS is comparable to that of the UK general population. During a period with strict physical distancing measures, pwMS are not at an increased risk of contracting COVID-19.

Collapse

Author Of 3 Presentations

Epidemiology Poster Presentation

LB1155 - Vitamin D levels in the UK MS population and COVID-19 susceptibility (ID 1116)

Abstract

Background

Despite the well-described association between vitamin D and MS, little is known about current behaviours surrounding vitamin D and the corresponding vitamin D status in this group at a population level across the UK. During the COVID-19 pandemic, interest in the role that vitamin D might play in reducing susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19 has come to the foreground.

Objectives

To determine the vitamin D status of the UK MS population, understand the factors that influence it, and examine how vitamin D supplementation affects the risk of COVID-19.

Methods

A cohort study using the UK MS Register was performed. Self-reported data surrounding vitamin D and remotely collected biological samples were collected. 1768 people with MS (pwMS) completed a questionnaire regarding vitamin D-influencing behaviours; dried blood spots were collected from 388 of these pwMS and 309 matched controls, and serum 25(OH)D was measured. Subsequently, 592 participants from this MS cohort prospectively completed questionnaires evaluating symptoms suggestive of COVID-19.

Results

Marked differences were observed between supplementation behaviours with pwMS more likely to take supplements (72% vs 26% controls, p<0.001), and at higher doses (median 1600 IU/day vs 600 IU/day in controls, p<0.001). Serum levels of 25(OH)D were higher in pwMS than controls (71nmol/L, IQR 48 vs 49nmol/L, IQR 27, p<0.001). People with MS who did not supplement had lower serum 25(OH)D levels than non-supplementing controls (median 38 nmol/L, IQR 35 vs 44 nmol/L, IQR 21, p<0.001). 71% of those self-diagnosed with COVID-19 reported taking vitamin D vs 72% without COVID-19. Median dose for those with COVID-19 was reported as 1000 IU/day vs 2000 IU/day in those without (p=0.682).

Conclusions

pwMS living in the UK are more likely to have adequate levels of vitamin D than controls, and is driven by the higher rate and dose of supplementation across this population. This has implications on the design and interpretation of any future clinical trials with vitamin D in this population. In addition, we found no evidence that vitamin D supplementation had an impact on susceptibility to COVID-19 in this population.

Collapse
Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life Poster Presentation

LB1176 - Anxiety affects the general well-being of people with MS during the COVID-19 pandemic more than the infection itself (ID 1893)

Speakers
Presentation Number
LB1176
Presentation Topic
Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life

Abstract

Background

Anxiety and depression are more common in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) compared to people without MS. The unpredictable nature of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused widespread distress, but it is unknown if it would affect pwMS disproportionately.

Objectives

To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mood and well-being of pwMS in the UK and compare it to that of controls.

Methods

The UK MS Register has been collecting Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) data of pwMS since 2011. In the mood and well-being UKMSR COVID-19 study, we asked pwMS (n=5240) and controls (n=376) to answer questions on General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depression and Revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in addition to changes in their lifestyle and well-being during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Results

The HADS score of pwMS (n=2225) during the COVID-19 outbreak had not changed compared to the year before (mean difference 0.004, 95%CI -0.11−0.12, p=0.952 for anxiety and mean difference 0.05, 95%CI -0.05−0.15, p=0.283 for depression). The rate of anxiety (GAD-7>5) in male pwMS (37.2%) was more than controls (24.3%) (p=0.032) but was similar in female pwMS and controls. More male pwMS had moderate to severe depression (PHQ-9>9) compared to controls (28.5.4% vs 12.2%, p=0.003), but again, the rate was similar in females. More pwMS who had COVID-19, experienced anxiety or PTSD (IES-R>32) compared to those without the infection (54% vs 44%, p=0.018; 30.5% vs 22.5%, p=0.024, respectively). The rate of depression was similar in pwMS with or without symptoms of the disease. Anxiety, compared to the actual infection, was more strongly associated with subjective worsening of general health (57.1% vs 37.3%, with anxiety or COVID-19 respectively, p=0.008) or MS symptoms (61% vs 31.3%, p<0.001).

A high proportion of both pwMS and controls did not experience any change in the quality of their relationships. However, more pwMS reported worsening of their relationships compared to controls (21.4% vs 16.7%, p<0.001). The change in loneliness was similar between the two groups with 4 in 10 pwMS and controls feeling lonelier during the outbreak.

Conclusions

Anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic is having a more profound effect on the general well-being of most patients compared to the infection itself.

Collapse
Invited Presentations Invited Abstracts

TC11.02 - Presentation 02 (ID 621)

Speakers
Authors
Presentation Number
TC11.02
Presentation Topic
Invited Presentations

Presenter Of 1 Presentation

Invited Presentations Invited Abstracts

TC11.02 - Presentation 02 (ID 621)

Speakers
Authors
Presentation Number
TC11.02
Presentation Topic
Invited Presentations

Moderator Of 1 Session

Teaching Course Fri, Sep 11, 2020

Invited Speaker Of 1 Presentation

Invited Presentations Invited Abstracts

TC11.02 - Presentation 02 (ID 621)

Speakers
Authors
Presentation Number
TC11.02
Presentation Topic
Invited Presentations