Author Of 3 Presentations
P0087 - Identification of proteins associated with ageing in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (ID 1589)
Similar to other neurodegenerative disorders, the onset of progressive MS is related to age, a factor known to amplify neurodegeneration. Recent studies have shown that exposure of aged mice to a young blood circulation through parabiosis or administration of young blood plasma (plasma from 3-month-old mice) reverses cognitive deficits observed with normal ageing.
We aimed to search for soluble factors in the serum of patients with progressive MS that are affected by age and are differentially decreased in patients compared to healthy controls (HC) of similar age.
Protein levels were determined in serum samples from a cohort of 30 untreated MS patients (15 patients with secondary progressive MS - SPMS - and 15 with primary progressive MS - PPMS) and 25 HC. Progressive MS patients were classified according to age and clinical characteristics into the following three groups (each group containing 10 patients, 5 with SPMS and 5 with PPMS): (i) 40 ± 3 years old, disease duration <10 years, EDSS <4.5; (ii) 50 ± 3 years old, disease duration between 10-20 years, EDSS between 4.5-6; and (iii) 60 ± 3 years old, disease duration >20 years, EDSS >6.5. HC were classified based on age into the following groups (each group containing 5 individuals): 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 ± 3 years old. To maximize the breadth and depth of serum proteome coverage, the top 70 abundant proteins in serum were depleted. Afterwards, samples were subjected to mass spectrometry.
After depletion of the most abundant proteins in serum, a total of 2,059 molecules were detected in all 55 samples. The maSigPro package (R Bioconductor) was used to identify proteins with significantly divergent expression profiles as a function of time. A quadratic regression model was fit for each molecule and 823 proteins, among the 2059 analyzed, were found differentially expressed (FDR < 0.05) between the MS group and HC. The serum levels of the following proteins were significantly decreased by ageing in progressive MS patients compared with HC and were selected for further studies: PLXDC2, Neudesin, Myostatin, Myocilin, and EMMPRIN.
Protein expression profiling associated with ageing in progressive MS patients and HC lead to the identification of number of promising candidates associated with neurotrophic functions, myelination, and nervous system development. Results obtained by mass spectrometry need to be validated by targeted immunoassays.
P0312 - Differential effects of dimethyl fumarate, monomethyl fumarate and cannabidiol in the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 in neurons and microglia (ID 361)
The Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that promotes the expression of antioxidant genes, protecting cells against oxidative stress and it also exerts immunomodulatory properties. The activation of Nrf2 is one of the proposed mechanisms of action of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an approved drug for Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
DMF is rapidly metabolized into its active metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) in the intestine. However, there is a lack of studies comparing the effects of both compounds. The combination of other Nrf2 activators could be relevant as adjuvants for DMF in neuroinflammation. Cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid that attenuates MS in murine models, is known to have antioxidant properties, although there are no studies on Nrf2 activation by CBD.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of DMF, MMF and CBD on the activation of Nrf2 in neurons and microglia.
Primary hippocampal neurons and the microglial cell line BV-2 were treated for 4 hours with either vehicle, DMF (1-30 µM), MMF (1-30 µM) or CBD (1-10 μM). Cells were fixed, permeabilized and stained with a Nrf2 antibody. Activation of Nrf2 was considered as nuclear translocation, measured by confocal microscopy as the mean density of nuclear fluorescence. Five fields were taken from each condition in 3 experiments. One-way ANOVA test was used, considering p<0.05 statistically significant.
DMF induced Nrf2 translocation in both neurons and microglia. However, Nrf2 translocation in neurons needed a higher dose (30 µM) than microglia (10 µM), and the induction was lower in neurons (four-fold increase) than in microglia (eight-fold increase). We did not find activation of Nrf2 with MMF in neither neurons nor microglia. CBD induced a dose-dependent Nrf2 activation in neurons, statistically significant at 6 and 7 μM, with a higher increase than that of DMF (8 and 12-fold compared to vehicle, respectively). CBD did not produce any effect on Nrf2 activation in microglia.
Our results support the idea that DMF acts as a neuroprotective and immunomodulatory drug through the activation of the Nrf2 pathway in neurons and microglia. We also demonstrate that DMF and MMF differ in their mechanisms of action, as we did not see Nrf2 activation with MMF. CBD could be relevant in neuroprotection as an adjuvant to DMF, as it induces a higher Nrf2 activation than DMF. CBD’s mechanism of action differs between neurons and microglia.
P0981 - Monitoring of encephalitogenic cells treated with nanoparticles in adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (ID 1637)
The circulatory pattern of encephalitogenic cells (ECs) in the adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (at-EAE) is not well known. Multimodal imaging nanoparticles (NPs), that combine more than one imaging moieties to be monitored by different imaging tecniques have gained special attention for cell monitoring.
To evaluate the in vitro toxicity and internalization of new chitosan-based multimodal imaging NPs that incorporated IR820 NIR fluorescent probe, and superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles in ECs. To study the distribution of ECs labelled with internalized NPs after the induction of at-EAE.
Splenocytes and lymph nodes from C57BL/6 mice with actively induced EAE were cultured for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours with MOG35-55 (25µg/ml), IL-12 (25ng/ml), IL-18 (25ng/ml) and different dilutions of NPs (1/50 and 1/100) which had different concentrations of Fe (1/10 and 1/100). ECs viability (up to 90%) was assessed by flow cytometry and Alamar blue. NPs internalization was analyzed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry using 633nm red laser.
After selecting the best cell viability and IR emission culture condition with NPs, 2 x 106 ECs were injected intraperitoneally to induce at-EAE. Mice were sacrificed at different time points (1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 24 days) and biodistribution of ECs was analyzed by confocal microscopy in heart, lymph nodes, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, brain and spinal cord..
To check whether the internalization of NPs affected the encephalitogenic capacity, clinical assessment was carried out for 24 days in two groups of animals. One of them was treated with ECs cultured with NPs, and the other with ECs without NPs.
Confocal images obtained by fluorescence and reflection,corroborate the internalization of NPs and their persistence inside the cells over time. NPs did not affect the viability nor the encephalitogenic capacity of ECs. The highest fluorescence signal in ECs was obtained with the less diluted NPs (1/50) and the maximum concentration of Fe (1/10). These conditions were chosen for the induction of at-EAE. We have found the presence of ECs at days 1, 2 and 3 post injection in brain, spinal cord, lymph nodes and spleen.
Our findings suggest that activated ECs cross the blood-brain barrier rapidly after inoculation, locating themselves mainly in the central nervous system, where they trigger the inflammatory response that will produce the clinical characteristics of at-EAE. New multimodal imaging NPs allowed successful ECs monitoring due to their good tolerability and low toxicity.