Author Of 4 Presentations
P0123 - Ocrelizumab reduces thalamic volume loss and clinical progression in PPMS and RMS independent of baseline NfL and other measures of disease severity (ID 1621)
Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a biomarker of neuroaxonal injury in multiple sclerosis (MS). Thalamic atrophy occurs early and may be a sensitive marker of overall brain damage. Ocrelizumab (OCR) reduced brain atrophy and NfL in patients with relapsing MS (RMS) and those with primary progressive MS (PPMS).
To examine the independent impact of OCR and baseline (BL) NfL on thalamic volume (TV) and clinical progression in patients with PPMS and RMS, including those with RMS without acute BL activity (i.e. no gadolinium–enhancing [Gd+] lesions or relapse in the last 3 months).
Patients were from OPERA I/II (RMS, n=1,421) and ORATORIO (PPMS, n=596). Thalamic atrophy was calculated as annualized percentage TV change (PTVC) from Wk 24 to the end of controlled treatment (ORATORIO, Wk 120; OPERA I/II, Wk 96). OCR treatment (vs IFNβ-1a [RMS] or placebo [PPMS]) and log-transformed BL NfL were examined for associations with PTVC (linear regression) and 24-week confirmed disability progression (Cox regression) adjusting for BL demographic and disease characteristics.
In patients with PPMS and RMS, OCR treatment (PTVC: +0.47% and +0.33%, respectively) and lower BL NfL (+0.20% and +0.33% per 2-fold lower NfL) independently associated with a smaller TV reduction (all p<0.005). Adjusting for BL NfL level, Gd+ lesion count, T2 lesion volume and BL disability, OCR still reduced disability progression on Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (PPMS, hazard ratio [HR]=0.73; RMS, HR=0.65; both p<0.05]), 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT) (PPMS, HR=0.53, p=0.002; RMS, HR=0.52, p=0.059), Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW) (PPMS, HR=0.79, p=0.063), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (RMS, HR=0.54, p=0.002) and time to EDSS 6 (RMS, HR=0.42, p=0.009). In patients with PPMS, higher BL NfL was associated with worsening on 9HPT (HR=1.34 per 2-fold higher NfL), T25FW (HR=1.19) and time to EDSS 7 (HR=1.78) (all p<0.05). In patients with RMS without acute BL activity, higher BL NfL was associated with EDSS worsening (HR=1.49), progression independent of relapse activity (PIRA) (HR=1.61), 9HPT (HR=2.1) and time to EDSS 6 (HR=2.24) (all p<0.05).
Ocrelizumab treatment remained associated with reduced thalamic atrophy and clinical progression after adjusting for baseline NfL and other factors. Higher BL NfL was associated with increased rates of thalamic atrophy and clinical progression in patients with PPMS and those with RMS without acute disease activity.
P0125 - Ocrelizumab treatment induces a sustained blood NfL reduction in patients with PPMS and RMS (ID 1865)
Blood neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a biomarker of neuroaxonal injury associated with acute disease activity and may be prognostic for disability progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Ocrelizumab (OCR) is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody indicated for relapsing MS (RMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS).
To assess the impact of OCR on blood NfL distribution in patients with RMS from the OPERA I and II trials and those with PPMS from ORATORIO.
Pretreatment and posttreatment NfL levels (measured using the SiMOA assay) with OCR vs interferon β-1a (OPERA I and II; n=1,421) or placebo (ORATORIO; n=596) were compared using geometric mean (GM) and GM ratios (GMR). Patients were stratified by presence/absence of acute disease activity at baseline (BL) (T1 gadolinium [Gd]-enhancing lesions and/or relapse in prior 3 months for RMS; T1 Gd-enhancing lesions for PPMS). Age-adjusted NfL distributions (using a linear model for log-NfL and age derived from a healthy donor [HD] cohort) at BL and after OCR were compared with HD using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
Significant reductions in NfL were observed 3 months after OCR initiation (RMS, GMR=0.80; PPMS, GMR=0.89) and sustained through the end of controlled treatment (RMS [96 weeks], GMR=0.56; PPMS [120 weeks], GMR=0.81; all p<0.0001). Age-adjusted BL serum NfL was elevated in patients with RMS disease activity (GM [95% CI]=12.7 [11.9–13.6] pg/mL) vs those without (5.5 [5.3–5.7] pg/mL) and HD (4.1 [3.9–4.4] pg/mL; all p<0.0001). In OCR-treated patients with RMS, GM [95% CI] serum NfL levels after 96 weeks (with activity at BL, 4.4 [4.2–4.6] pg/mL; without activity at BL, 4.1 [4.0–4.3] pg/mL) were comparable to HD (4.1 [3.9–4.4] pg/mL; all p>0.1). Age-adjusted BL plasma NfL was also elevated in PPMS patients with disease activity (GM [95% CI]=8.7 [7.5–10.1] pg/mL) vs those without (4.9 [4.6–5.2] pg/mL) and HD (3.1 [2.9–3.3] pg/mL; all p<0.0001). In OCR-treated patients with PPMS, GM [95% CI] plasma NfL levels after 120 weeks (with activity at BL, 4.6 [4.1–5.1] pg/mL; without activity at BL, 4.2 [4.0–4.4] pg/mL) were reduced from BL (all p<0.005) but remained elevated vs HD (all p<0.001).
NfL is highly elevated in patients with acute MS disease activity, and more subtle elevations are observed in RMS and PPMS patients without detectable disease activity. Ocrelizumab significantly reduces NfL in RMS and PPMS patients with and without detectable disease activity.
P0242 - Treating minority patients with multiple sclerosis: development of the CHIMES trial (ID 1212)
Minority patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), including those of African ancestry (AA) and Hispanic and Latino ethnicity (HA), have greater disease severity and faster progression than Whites. Minorities are vastly underrepresented in clinical trials, owing to poor access and cultural, economic and other participation barriers. Ocrelizumab (OCR), an anti-CD20 therapy targeting B cells, reduced the rates of disease activity and progression in patients with relapsing MS (RMS) and primary progressive MS in pivotal studies; however, minority participation was <10%.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of OCR in AA and HA patients with RMS (2017 McDonald criteria) who meet the US prescribing information criteria in a single-arm Phase IV clinical study designed exclusively to meet the needs of these specific demographic groups.
An industry-sponsored collaborative approach rooted in minority needs and known knowledge gaps was used.
Key differences between CHIMES (NCT04377555) and other MS trials are as follows:
1. CHIMES was developed in collaboration with patients with MS, patient advocacy groups and investigators.
2. Inclusion criteria allow for ≈150–200 participants with specific, well-controlled, pre-existing comorbidities and baseline creatinine levels within race-specific limits; these factors may disproportionately limit minority patient qualification in other trials.
3. OCR was chosen because of the indications that AA patients with MS may have greater B-cell–mediated pathology, such as a higher CSF IgG index.
4. Written materials will be available in English and Spanish and will be reviewed by a minority patient panel to ensure that they are easy to understand.
5. To enable early results, the primary endpoint is disease activity, defined by the proportion of patients free of protocol-defined events (clinical relapses, CDP or MRI activity) at the end of year 1.
6. All patients may participate in the second-year extension to study disease progression and various biomarker endpoints.
7. One-third of patients will participate in a substudy to assess CSF-specific biomarkers at two time points.
Findings from CHIMES are expected to improve current understanding of MS disease biology, treatment response and clinical trial participation among AA and HA patients with MS, with the ultimate goals of increasing high-quality standard of care to traditionally underserved populations and enhancing equality through clinical research.
P0671 - Exploring the gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis via the international MS Microbiome Study (iMSMS) (ID 1532)
- S. Singh
- M. Mendoza
- R. Baumann
- J. Landefeld
- P. Casaccia
- I. Katz Sand
- Z. Xia
- H. Weiner
- T. Chitnis
- S. Chandran
- P. Connick
- D. Oteagui
- T. Castillo-Trivino
- S. Caillier
- A. Santaniello
- G. Ackermann
- G. Humphrey
- L. Negrotto
- M. Farez
- R. Hohlfeld
- A. Pröbstel
- X. Jia
- J. Graves
- A. Bar-Or
- H. Wekerle
- J. Oksenberg
- T. West
- J. Correale
- B. Cree
- S. Hauser
- R. Knight
- S. Baranzini
The gut microbiota is emerging as a critical regulator of immune responses and appears to play an important role in MS. The International Multiple Sclerosis Microbiome study (iMSMS) is a global collaboration aimed at elucidating the role of commensal gut bacteria in MS by acquiring and analyzing samples from 2000 patients and 2000 household healthy controls.
The iMSMS focuses on identifying the microbes, genes and pathways that are involved in MS pathogenesis and on investigating how the microbiome changes response to treatment.
A total of 576 case and household healthy control pairs were recruited from 7 centers located in the US (West and East coasts), Europe and South America. Stool samples were collected and evaluated by both 16S and shallow whole metagenome shotgun sequencing. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to understand patterns of variation on gut microbiome.
This is the largest MS microbiome study reported to date. Our results showed a statistically significant difference of beta diversity between MS and healthy controls for the first time in MS. Intriguingly, multiple species of Akkermansia, including the known mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila, were significantly enriched in untreated MS patients after adjusting for confounding factors, but the difference was not detected in treated MS group versus control. Ruminococcus torques and Eisenbergiella tayi were also among the top significantly enriched bacteria in MS. Inversely, a main butyrate producer, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, was significantly decreased in the untreated MS group. Functional pathways of L-tryptophan biosynthesis and L-threonine biosynthesis were slightly increased in untreated MS patients, while 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis I was increased in the treated group.
Our large household-controlled study allowed us to identify modest but statistically robust MS-associated changes in bacterial composition and functions. It provides the foundation for all future studies of the gut microbiota in MS. The strain-level genomic variation and microbiome-derived molecules need to be further explored for understanding microbial adaptation and pathogenicity.