Author Of 3 Presentations
P0549 - Baseline neuroaxonal integrity is associated with upper limb function at 96 weeks in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (ID 1202)
Neurometabolites measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can be used to examine the relationship between metabolic markers of brain injury and clinical disability in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Current work has shown an association between normal appearing white matter (NAWM) total N-acetyl aspartate plus N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate (tNAA) and both arm function and measures of processing speed.
To determine if baseline tNAA and tNAA/tCr in NAWM are associated with upper limb function (9-hole peg test) and information processing speed (Paced auditory serial addition test) after 96 weeks of follow-up.
108 participants from the recently reported MS-SMART trial were included.1 All participants had chemical shift imaging in a single slice in the brain (2D-PRESS, TE/TR = 35/2000ms) at 3T and metabolite levels were determined for grey matter and NAWM. Absolute concentrations and ratios to total creatine (tCr) were calculated with LCModel, using an unsuppressed water scan as the internal reference. Along with MRSI, baseline T2 lesion volume (T2LV) and normalised brain volume (NBV) were calculated. Clinical measures were acquired as per MS-SMART protocol at baseline and 96 weeks.2 To determine the association between baseline neurometabolites and 9-hole peg test (9HPT) and Paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) scores at 96 weeks, multiple regression analysis was used with trial arm, age, sex, disease duration, relapses preceding study entry, T2LV and NBV at baseline as the covariates.
At baseline, mean age of the cohort was 55 years (sd 7.1) and 67% female, mean disease duration was 22 years (sd 9.6), median EDSS 6.0 (IQR 1.0), mean PASAT score 42.8, 95% CI [40.4-45.2], mean 9HPT (sec-1) 0.036, 95% CI [0.034-0.037] and median T2LV 9.0mL (IQR 13.6). At 96 weeks, mean 9HPT (sec-1) was 0.034, 95% CI [0.032-0.036] and mean PASAT3 score was 43.6, 95% CI [40.8-46.3]. Baseline tNAA (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.02-0.41], p = 0.03) and tNAA/tCr (β = 0.23, 95% CI [0.5-0.42], p = 0.02) in NAWM were associated with 9HPT at 96 weeks. Baseline NAWM tNAA and tNAA/tCr were not significantly associated with 96-week PASAT scores.
Baseline neuroaxonal integrity in NAWM as measured by tNAA and tNAA/tCr are associated with upper limb function at 96-weeks. Baseline neuroaxonal integrity in NAWM was not associated with a measure of processing speed at 96 weeks.
1. Chataway J et al. Efficacy of three neuroprotective drugs in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS-SMART): a phase 2b, multiarm, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2020
2. Connick P et al. Multiple Sclerosis-Secondary Progressive Multi-Arm Randomisation Trial (MS-SMART): a multiarm phase IIb randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing the efficacy of three neuroprotective drugs in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. BMJ Open 2018
P0651 - The effects of amiloride, fluoxetine and riluzole over 96 weeks on metabolic markers of brain injury in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. (ID 1206)
MS-SMART is a recently reported phase 2b randomised placebo controlled multi-arm study of the neuroprotective potential of amiloride, fluoxetine and riluzole in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis [NCT01910259]. No change in atrophy rate was observed in any arm compared to placebo. We obtained brain metabolic data using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at baseline and 96 weeks to explore postulated candidate drug mechanisms of action for the three interventions. Fluoxetine has previously shown an increase in total N-acetyl aspartate plus N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate [tNAA]; myoinositol was also examined as a marker of astrogliosis. Amiloride blocks the acid sensing ion channel-1 receptor that mediates sodium and calcium and therefore could increase neuroaxonal integrity (tNAA). It is known that riluzole decreases glutaminergic transmission.
MRSI data at baseline and then 96 weeks was used to interrogate drug specific effects of fluoxetine on tNAA and myoinositol (mIns); riluzole on Glx (glutamate + glutamine); and amiloride on tNAA levels, all compared to placebo.
108 participants from the MS-SMART trial were included and had chemical shift imaging in a single slice in the brain (2D-PRESS, TE/TR =35/2000ms) at 3T. Metabolite levels and ratios to creatine (tCr) were determined for normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter (GM) with LCModel using an unsuppressed water scan as the internal reference. Multiple regression models adjusting for age, sex and baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were used.
Mean age of the entire cohort was 55 (sd 7.1) years, 67% female, mean disease duration was 22 years (sd 9.6), median EDSS 6.0 (range 4.0-6.5) and median T2 lesion volume 9.0mL (IQR 6.0).
In the fluoxetine arm, there was no significant change in tNAA (or tNAA/Cr) in NAWM or GM; mIns/tCr (but not mIns) was lower at 96 weeks (β = -0.21, 95% CI [-0.40 to -0.02], p = 0.03) in NAWM (but not GM).
In the riluzole arm, there was a reduction in GM Glx (β = -0.25, 95% CI [-0.47 to -0.04], p = 0.02) and Glx/tCr (β = -0.29, 95% CI [-0.50 to -0.08], p = 0.007), but no change was seen in NAWM.
In the amiloride arm, there was no change in tNAA (or tNAA/tCr) in NAWM or GM.
Neither fluoxetine nor amiloride had any effect on proposed measures of neuroaxonal integrity in NAWM or GM as reflected in tNAA levels. There was a fluoxetine reduction in NAWM mIns/tCr perhaps reflecting some decrease in astrogliosis. Riluzole decreased GM Glx levels as anticipated. However, despite these target effects for these drugs, ultimately they did not translate into a reduction in atrophy rate in the trial.
P0739 - Optic chiasm involvement in MS, aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD, and MOG antibody-associated disease (ID 1441)
Inflammatory demyelination in the anterior optic pathway, including the optic chiasm (OC), occurs frequently in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), aquaporin4 (AQP4) antibody (Ab) positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-Ab associated-disease (MOGAD).
To evaluate the involvement of the OC in RRMS, AQP4-NMOSD and MOGAD using Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) and explore its relationship with prior optic neuritis (ON).
We recruited 25 patients with RRMS (16 F, mean age: 44.6 yrs ±11.8, median EDSS: 2.0 [range: 1.0-7.5], mean number of previous episodes of ON: 0.44±0.58, 9 unilateral, 1 bilateral), 13 with AQP4-NMOSD (10 F, mean age: 45.3 yrs ±11.2, median EDSS: 3.0 [1.0-6.5], mean number of ON episodes: 1.54±1.13, 4 unilateral, 6 bilateral), 20 with MOGAD (13 F, mean age: 33.9 yrs ±16.4, median EDSS: 2.0 [0.0-6.5], mean number of ON episodes: 2.85±2.80, 6 unilateral, 11 bilateral) and 29 healthy controls (HC) (23 F, mean age: 35.9 yrs ±12.8). We used T2-weighted, MTon and MToff images to obtain MTR maps of the OC. Age-, sex-, and disease duration-adjusted linear regression models were used to compare the measures between disease and healthy groups (p<0.05).
Chiasmal MTR values in patients with previous ON were lower in AQP4-NMOSD (p=0.040) and MOGAD (p=0.001) than HC but not when compared to patients without previous ON. In patients with RRMS and previous ON, MTR values were lower than patients without prior ON (p=0.003). No differences were found either between patients without ON and HC or between the disease groups.
When considering all patients with demyelinating diseases, patients with previous ON had lower chiasmal MTR values when compared to HC (unilateral: p=0.037; bilateral: p=0.002) and to patients without ON (unilateral: p=0.019; bilateral: p<0.001). This difference persisted when comparing both monophasic and relapsing ON patients to HC (p=0.044; p<0.001) and to patients without ON (p=0.019; p<0.001). No differences were found between patients without history of ON and HC. A correlation was found between MTR values and number of ON episodes (rho=-0.55, p<0.001).
Microstructural damage in the OC correlated with the number of ON episodes across inflammatory demyelinating diseases. A higher number of episodes is associated with lower chiasmal MTR, supporting its role as an accessible target for the assessment of the visual pathway in inflammatory diseases.