Author Of 1 Presentation
LB01.04 - Brain microstructural and metabolic alterations detected in vivo at the onset of the first demyelinating event.
In early multiple sclerosis, a clearer understanding of normal-brain tissue microstructural and metabolic abnormalities will provide valuable insights into its pathophysiology. Here, we studied the brain of patients with their first demyelinating episode using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), for information about neuro-axonal density and spatial distribution, and 23Na MRI, for total sodium concentration reflecting neuro-axonal metabolic dysfunction and loss.
To detect, using a multi-parametric quantitative MRI approach, clinically relevant alterations in the brain of early patients not captured by conventional MRI.
We enrolled 42 patients with clinically isolated syndrome or multiple sclerosis within 3 months from the onset and 16 healthy controls. We assessed physical and cognitive scales. On a 3T scanner, we acquired brain and spinal cord structural scans, and brain NODDI. Thirty-two patients and 13 healthy controls also underwent brain 23Na MRI. In the brain normal-appearing white matter, white matter lesions, and grey matter, we measured, from NODDI, the neurite density index (NDI), a marker of neuro-axonal density, and the orientation dispersion index (ODI), reflecting the fanning and crossing of neurites, and, from 23Na MRI, the TSC. We used linear regression models, adjusted for brain parenchymal fraction and lesion load, and Spearman correlation tests. For robust regression estimates, we used a p≤0.01.
Patients showed higher ODI in normal-appearing white matter, including the corpus callosum, where they also showed lower NDI and higher TSC, compared with controls. In grey matter, compared with controls, patients had lower ODI in frontal, parietal and temporal cortex; lower NDI in parietal, temporal and occipital cortex; and higher TSC in limbic and frontal cortex. Brain volumes did not differ between patients and controls. In patients, higher ODI in corpus callosum was associated with worse performance on timed walk test (p=0.009, B=0.01, 99% Confidence Interval=0.0001-0.02), independent of brain and lesion volumes. Higher TSC in left frontal middle gyrus was associated with higher disability on Expanded Disability Status Scale (rs=0.5, p=0.005).
We found increased axonal dispersion in normal-appearing white matter, particularly corpus callosum, where we found also reduced axonal density and total sodium accumulation suggesting that this structure can be early affected by neurodegeneration. The association between increased axonal dispersion in the corpus callosum and worse walking performance implies that morphological and metabolic alterations in this structure may contribute to disability in multiple sclerosis. Brain volumes were neither altered nor related to disability in patients, so these two advanced MRI techniques can be more sensitive at detecting clinically relevant pathology in very early multiple sclerosis.
Author Of 2 Presentations
P0549 - Baseline neuroaxonal integrity is associated with upper limb function at 96 weeks in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (ID 1202)
Neurometabolites measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can be used to examine the relationship between metabolic markers of brain injury and clinical disability in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Current work has shown an association between normal appearing white matter (NAWM) total N-acetyl aspartate plus N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate (tNAA) and both arm function and measures of processing speed.
To determine if baseline tNAA and tNAA/tCr in NAWM are associated with upper limb function (9-hole peg test) and information processing speed (Paced auditory serial addition test) after 96 weeks of follow-up.
108 participants from the recently reported MS-SMART trial were included.1 All participants had chemical shift imaging in a single slice in the brain (2D-PRESS, TE/TR = 35/2000ms) at 3T and metabolite levels were determined for grey matter and NAWM. Absolute concentrations and ratios to total creatine (tCr) were calculated with LCModel, using an unsuppressed water scan as the internal reference. Along with MRSI, baseline T2 lesion volume (T2LV) and normalised brain volume (NBV) were calculated. Clinical measures were acquired as per MS-SMART protocol at baseline and 96 weeks.2 To determine the association between baseline neurometabolites and 9-hole peg test (9HPT) and Paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) scores at 96 weeks, multiple regression analysis was used with trial arm, age, sex, disease duration, relapses preceding study entry, T2LV and NBV at baseline as the covariates.
At baseline, mean age of the cohort was 55 years (sd 7.1) and 67% female, mean disease duration was 22 years (sd 9.6), median EDSS 6.0 (IQR 1.0), mean PASAT score 42.8, 95% CI [40.4-45.2], mean 9HPT (sec-1) 0.036, 95% CI [0.034-0.037] and median T2LV 9.0mL (IQR 13.6). At 96 weeks, mean 9HPT (sec-1) was 0.034, 95% CI [0.032-0.036] and mean PASAT3 score was 43.6, 95% CI [40.8-46.3]. Baseline tNAA (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.02-0.41], p = 0.03) and tNAA/tCr (β = 0.23, 95% CI [0.5-0.42], p = 0.02) in NAWM were associated with 9HPT at 96 weeks. Baseline NAWM tNAA and tNAA/tCr were not significantly associated with 96-week PASAT scores.
Baseline neuroaxonal integrity in NAWM as measured by tNAA and tNAA/tCr are associated with upper limb function at 96-weeks. Baseline neuroaxonal integrity in NAWM was not associated with a measure of processing speed at 96 weeks.
1. Chataway J et al. Efficacy of three neuroprotective drugs in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS-SMART): a phase 2b, multiarm, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2020
2. Connick P et al. Multiple Sclerosis-Secondary Progressive Multi-Arm Randomisation Trial (MS-SMART): a multiarm phase IIb randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing the efficacy of three neuroprotective drugs in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. BMJ Open 2018
P0651 - The effects of amiloride, fluoxetine and riluzole over 96 weeks on metabolic markers of brain injury in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. (ID 1206)
MS-SMART is a recently reported phase 2b randomised placebo controlled multi-arm study of the neuroprotective potential of amiloride, fluoxetine and riluzole in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis [NCT01910259]. No change in atrophy rate was observed in any arm compared to placebo. We obtained brain metabolic data using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at baseline and 96 weeks to explore postulated candidate drug mechanisms of action for the three interventions. Fluoxetine has previously shown an increase in total N-acetyl aspartate plus N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate [tNAA]; myoinositol was also examined as a marker of astrogliosis. Amiloride blocks the acid sensing ion channel-1 receptor that mediates sodium and calcium and therefore could increase neuroaxonal integrity (tNAA). It is known that riluzole decreases glutaminergic transmission.
MRSI data at baseline and then 96 weeks was used to interrogate drug specific effects of fluoxetine on tNAA and myoinositol (mIns); riluzole on Glx (glutamate + glutamine); and amiloride on tNAA levels, all compared to placebo.
108 participants from the MS-SMART trial were included and had chemical shift imaging in a single slice in the brain (2D-PRESS, TE/TR =35/2000ms) at 3T. Metabolite levels and ratios to creatine (tCr) were determined for normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter (GM) with LCModel using an unsuppressed water scan as the internal reference. Multiple regression models adjusting for age, sex and baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were used.
Mean age of the entire cohort was 55 (sd 7.1) years, 67% female, mean disease duration was 22 years (sd 9.6), median EDSS 6.0 (range 4.0-6.5) and median T2 lesion volume 9.0mL (IQR 6.0).
In the fluoxetine arm, there was no significant change in tNAA (or tNAA/Cr) in NAWM or GM; mIns/tCr (but not mIns) was lower at 96 weeks (β = -0.21, 95% CI [-0.40 to -0.02], p = 0.03) in NAWM (but not GM).
In the riluzole arm, there was a reduction in GM Glx (β = -0.25, 95% CI [-0.47 to -0.04], p = 0.02) and Glx/tCr (β = -0.29, 95% CI [-0.50 to -0.08], p = 0.007), but no change was seen in NAWM.
In the amiloride arm, there was no change in tNAA (or tNAA/tCr) in NAWM or GM.
Neither fluoxetine nor amiloride had any effect on proposed measures of neuroaxonal integrity in NAWM or GM as reflected in tNAA levels. There was a fluoxetine reduction in NAWM mIns/tCr perhaps reflecting some decrease in astrogliosis. Riluzole decreased GM Glx levels as anticipated. However, despite these target effects for these drugs, ultimately they did not translate into a reduction in atrophy rate in the trial.