Author Of 2 Presentations
FC03.01 - Defining controversies of benign MS using digital technology
Multiple-Sclerosis-Partners-Advancing-Technology-Health-Solutions (MSPATHS) is an international multicentre digital database that collects clinical information provided directly by patients together with standardized MRI and biomarkers.
We identify a Benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) population using Patient-Determined-Disease-Steps (PDDS) as a proxy for EDSS. We describe its physical and non-physical characteristics, and explore the features that best discriminate BMS.
Cross-sectional study of MSPATHS patients (Feb 2019). In patients with disease duration ≥10 years, BMS was considered when PDDS score<2. We compared BMS and non-BMS in terms of (1)socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, (2)physical status (lower and upper extremity function by Neuro-QoL (LUEF-NQ) and neurological performance tests: walking speed test (WST), manual dexterity test (MDT), processing speed test (PST), contrast sensitivity test (CST)) and non-physical symptoms (anxiety, depression, fatigue, among other NQ domains), and (3)MRI (gadolinium enhancement and new T2 lesions). We built a random forest model to estimate the importance of each variable. Cohen’s d was used for descriptive statistics to categorize differences in small (d=0.2-0.5), medium (d=0.5-0.8) and large (d>0.8). A sensitivity analysis with a 1:1 matched cohort by disease duration was performed.
From 15,257 patients included, 8,349 had a disease duration ≥10 years and 3,852 (46.1%) were classified as BMS. (1)BMS and non-BMS patients were similar for gender, age at disease onset and diagnosis, ethnicity, years of education and smoking status. Compared to non-BMS, BMS had small differences in disease duration (median, 17.2 (12,9-23,4) vs. 20.9 (15,1-28,8 years); d=0.39) but medium/large differences in (2)physical status (LUEF-NQ d=2.06 and 1.53, WST d=0.81, MDT d=0.97, PST d=0.82 and CST d=0.56), as well as, in all non-physical symptoms evaluated by NQ (anxiety d=0.53, depression d=0.69, fatigue d=0.84, stigma d=1.32, cognition d=0.69, social role satisfaction (SRS) d=1.11 and participation (SRP) d=1.19). (3)No differences were found on MRI activity. With 0.88 sensitivity and 0.86 specificity, LUEF-NQ was the most contributing variable for the random forest followed by stigma, SRP, WST, and SRS. The sensitivity analysis showed similar results.
PDDS seems to be a useful disability proxy to identify BMS when using digital technology. LUEF-NQ, stigma, SRP and SRS seem to better discriminate BMS.
PS01.05 - Rituximab treatment for MS: an observational multicentric dose comparison
Rituximab (RTX) is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, widely used as an off-label treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite well-known efficacy and safety, RTX regimen has not yet been standardized.
We aimed to compare efficacy and safety data of two different rituximab doses at two large Catalan multiple sclerosis centres.
A two-centre ambispective study considering all MS patients that have received at least one RTX cycle until February 2020 was conducted. In Barcelona centre (BC), RTX regimen used was 2g intravenously (IV), at least during 3 cycles, followed by 1g every 6 months, while in Girona centre (GC), was 2g IV, at least the first cycle, followed by 500mg every 6 months. Patients were clinically followed every 6 months with lab tests, and brain MRI scans were performed at baseline and yearly thereafter. Baseline clinical, radiological and demographic characteristics were collected. Annual relapse rate (ARR), contrast-enhancing lesions (CELs) and new T2 lesions at one and third year on treatment, as well as EDSS changes at last follow-up visit, were evaluated. Also, the dynamics of CD19% lymphocytes and IG immunoglobulin (IgG) values in serum, as well as the incidence of adverse events (AE) were described.
A total of 303 patients (249 at BC and 54 at GC) were included. Main reason to start RTX was clinical progression plus inflammatory activity (clinical, radiological or both) (45.8% BC vs 79.6% GC). No differences on age at RTX onset, gender and disease duration were found between both centres. At baseline, mean ARR was 0.37±0.6 (BC) vs. 0.33±0.5 (GC); median EDSS was 5.5 (1-9.0) (BC) vs. 6.0 (1-8.0) (GC); and proportion of MRI with CELs was 32.4% (BC) vs. 42.6% (GC). ARR decrease to 0.05 (87.5%, p<0.001) for BC vs. 0.03 (90.3%, p=0.018) for GC at first year, and to 0.08 (88.3%, p=0.016) vs. 0 (100%, p=0.172) at third year. Considering only progressive MS phenotypes, 79.4% vs. 71.4% of patients remained stable or improved the EDSS. Regarding MRI findings, percentages of patients with CELs and new T2 lesions (BC vs GC) were 2.7% vs. 8% and 19% vs. 16% at one year; and 0% vs. 0% and 12% vs. 0% at third year. AE incidence was higher at BC during the first year (14.8% vs 4.1%). No difference in the dynamics of CD19% lymphocytes was found, while IgG values decreased significantly in the BC cohort throughout the first 3 years.
In the treatment of multiple sclerosis, low doses of rituximab seem to offer similar effectiveness with better safety profile than high doses.
Author Of 3 Presentations
LB1168 - COVID-19 in MS patients: susceptibility and severity risk factors (ID 1524)
In the present pandemic, gathering information regarding Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients with COVID-19 is needed.
To investigate the incidence of COVID-19 in a Barcelona cohort of MS patients, to describe the characteristics of MS patients with COVID-19, and to identify risk factors for susceptibility and severity.
Retrospective cohort study of adult MS patients included from February to May 2020. COVID-19 and non-affected cases were identified through a COVID-19 mail survey and clinical visits. Demographic, clinical, MS characteristics, and laboratory data (lymphocyte and CD19+ count, immunoglobulins, and vitamin D) were obtained. Serological SARS-CoV-2 testing was performed in all suspected cases. We examined the relationship between the previously mentioned variables with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity.
Out of the 2903 surveys sent, a total of 875 were answered. 117 (13.37%) patients were excluded for not meeting inclusion criteria. 48 out of 758 were suspected COVID-19 and the remaining were classified as non-COVID-19. The estimated incidence was 6.3%. 45 additional suspected COVID-19 cases were detected in clinical visits. In the multivariate analysis, COVID-19 susceptibility was associated with being younger (OR 0.54, IC95% 0.34-0.87,p<0.01), having had contact with a confirmed case (OR 193.20, IC95% 55.34-674.43,p<0.01), living in Barcelona (OR 2.35, IC95% 1.08-5.09, p=0.03) and a longer MS disease duration (OR 1.43, IC95% 1.10-1.85,p<0.01). In patients treated with an anti-CD20 therapy, COVID-19 susceptibility increased with treatment duration (OR 3.36, IC95% 1.42-7.96, p<0.01). 19 (20.43%) of the 93 COVID-19 cases were hospitalized, 9(9.68%) presented a severe course and 2(2.15%) of them died. In the univariate analysis, older patients with comorbidities, a progressive and longer MS duration, and without disease-modifying therapies, presented a more severe disease although these results were not observed in the multivariate analysis. Out of the 79 (84.9%) with serological test, 45.6% had generated antibodies and 17.6% in patients receiving anti-CD20. No relation of lymphopenia, vitamin D, or immunoglobulins levels with COVID-19 susceptibility or severity was found.
MS patients present similar incidence, risk factors, and outcomes for COVID-19 than the general population. Patients treated with an anti-CD20 therapy for a longer period of time might be in a higher risk of COVID-19 and of generating lower antibody response.
LB1240 - A kappa free light chain index of 6.6 represents an alternative to positive oligoclonal bands in the 2017 McDonald criteria (ID 2125)
- G. Arrambide
- C. Espejo
- R. Dieli
- C. Auger
- M. Castillo
- M. Rodriguez-Barranco
- P. Carbonell-Mirabent
- J. Río
- J. Castilló
- A. Vidal-Jordana
- Í. Galán
- C. Nos
- M. Comabella
- B. Rodríguez-Acevedo
- L. Midaglia
- A. Zabalza
- A. Cobo Calvo
- P. Tagliani
- S. Cárdenas-Robledo
- J. Sastre-Garriga
- A. Rovira
- M. Hernández-González
- X. Montalban
- M. Tintore
Oligoclonal bands (OB) are part of the 2017 McDonald criteria but their determination is rater-dependent. Kappa free light chains (KFLC) are determined quantitatively and could be an alternative to OB, but a vendor-specific index cut-off is needed.
To compare the proportion of patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) and positive OB and a KFLC index equal or greater than 6.6 (KFLC-6.6, Leurs CE Mult Scler 2020) or 10.61 (KFLC-10.61, Gaetani L J Neuroimmunol 2020). To compare the diagnostic properties of OB, KFLC-6.6 and KFLC-10.61 for 2nd attack and 2017 MRI dissemination in space (DIS) and time (DIT).
MRIs were obtained 3-5 months after the CIS, at 1 year and every 5 years. OB were determined by isoelectric focusing combined with immunoblotting. We selected 228 patients with sufficient data to assess DIS and DIT, OB determination and enough remnant frozen samples to measure KFLC by turbidimetry (Optilite, The Binding Site). We compared the proportion of patients with positive OB, KFLC-6.6 and KFLC-10.61 and the 3-year diagnostic properties for the following outcomes: 2nd attack (n=179) and MRI DIS and DIT (n=192).
Of all patients, 146 (64.0%) had OB, 147 (65.5%) KFLC-6.6 and 137 (60.1%) KFLC-10.61. In total, 130 (57.0%) had OB and KFLC-6.6, 16 (7.0%) only OB, 17 (7.5%) only KFLC-6.6 and 65 (28.5%) had neither. As for OB and KFLC-10.61, 122 (53.5%) had both, 24 (10.5%) only OB, 15 (6.6%) only KFLC-10.61 and 67 (29.4%) had neither. At baseline, the criteria were fulfilled by patients with OB, KFLC-6.6 and KFLC-10.61 as follows: DIS 109/135 (80.7%), 114 (84.4%) and 106 (78.5%); DIT 70/87 (80.5%), 78 (89.7%) and 74 (85.1%); DIS plus DIT 64/78 (81.2), 71 (91.0%) and 67 (85.9); DIS plus OB 109 (100.0%), 101 (92.7%) and 94 (86.2); and McDonald 111/130 (85.4%), 113 (86.9%) and 106 (81.5%). The diagnostic properties of OB, KFLC-6.6 and KFLC-10.61 for 2nd attack were sensitivity 77.8, 85.6 and 78.0; specificity 44.9, 48.3 and 51.7; and accuracy 61.5, 67.0 and 65.4. Results for MRI DIS plus DIT were sensitivity 81.8, 87.9 and 82.6; specificity 66.7, 70.0 and 73.3; and accuracy 77.1, 82.3 and 79.7.
KFLC-10.61 had the greatest specificity and KFLC-6.6 the best overall diagnostic properties. The results were probably due to the higher proportion of positive KFLC patients with DIT compared to those with positive OB, suggesting KFLC-6.6 could be used as an alternative to OB in the McDonald criteria.
P0014 - Personalized and dynamic prognostic model from the Barcelona CIS cohot (ID 1607)
In the constantly evolving field of MS, personalized medicine is still one of the most important unmet need that requires further attention
We aimed to develop a dynamic risk calculator to predict the long-term prognosis of MS in the context of a large MS Centre in Catalonia
This is an observational study based on data prospectively acquired from a deeply phenotyped CIS cohort from Barcelona. We first built a natural history baseline risk score (BRS) for predicting moderate disability, integrating baseline prognostic factors: Sex, age at CIS, CIS topography, number of T2 lesions, contrast-enhancing lesions (CEL) and oligoclonal bands. This BRS was designed as follows: For untreated patients, we built a Weibull model to estimate the median time to confirmed EDSS 3.0 and with these estimates we identified risk groups based on the median of the cut-offs of 2000 survival trees. Then we obtained the BRS of the full cohort. In patients with more than ten years of follow-up, we performed an inverse probability weighting to balance patients during their follow up for the propensity of being treated or lost to follow-up. The weights were estimated via a proportional hazards (PH) Cox model considering both baseline information (CIS year, BRS) and time-dependent (diagnosis status, new T2 lesions, CEL and cumulative number of relapses). Finally, a weighted PH Cox model was built to estimate the time to confirmed EDSS 3.0 considering the BRS and time-dependent events (new T2 lesions, cumulative number of relapses and first or second-line treatment use). Sensitivity analyses using other disability outcomes and different follow-ups were conducted.
Of 956 patients, 577 (60.4%) were untreated before confirmed EDSS 3.0. Two BRS were obtained: low and high-BRS. Of 400 patients followed for more than ten years, 226 (56.5%) were low-BRS and 174 (43.5%) were high-BRS. High-BRS showed a HR=2.16 95%CI (1.16,4.02). Each new T2 lesion presented HR=1.04 95%CI (1.00,1.08) and each new relapse HR=1.46 95%CI (1.23,1.74). Being on second-line treatment showed a protective effect (HR=0.23 95%CI (0.06,0.94)) but no association was found for first-line treatments (HR=1.32 95%CI (0.67,2.60). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between BRS, new T2 lesions and the accumulation of relapses with the prognosis. However, treatment results were inconclusive.
Presenting a high-BRS doubles the risk of reaching moderate disability. Each new lesion and new relapse increses the risk by 4% and 46%, respectively; and second-line treatments seem to be protective. If validated, this risk calculator could be a crucial step to personalized medicine.