IRCCS Mondino Foundation

Author Of 2 Presentations

Observational Studies Oral Presentation

PS01.04 - Comparison of disability trajectories in relapsing Multiple Sclerosis patients treated with early intensive or escalation treatment strategies

Abstract

Background

to date, no consensus exists on how aggressively and timely treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients.

Objectives

To evaluate disability trajectories in a cohort of RRMS patients stratified according to two different disease modifying therapy (DMT) strategies, early intensive treatment (EIT) or moderate-efficacy treatment followed by escalation to higher-efficacy DMT (ESC).

Methods

RRMS patients with ≥5-year follow-up and ≥3 visits after start DMT, and a first visit within 3 years from disease onset were selected from the Italian MS Registry. EIT group included patients who received, as first DMT, fingolimod, natalizumab, mitoxantrone, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab, cladribine. ESC group included those who received the high efficacy DMT after ≥1 year of glatiramer acetate, interferons, azathioprine, teriflunomide or dimethylfumarate treatment. Patients were 1:1 propensity score(PS)-matched for characteristics at the first DMT. The follow-up time from the first DMT start has been segmented into 12-month periods. The disability trajectories were evaluated by applying a longitudinal model for repeated measures with an autoregressive variance-covariance structure. The effect of early versus late start of high-efficacy DMT was assessed by the mean annual EDSS changes compared to baseline values (delta-EDSS) in EIT and ESC groups.

Results

The study cohort included 2,652 RRMS patients from 62 Italian MS centers. The PS matching procedure produced 365 pairs. The median (IQR) follow-up after the first DMT start was 8.5 (6.5–11.7) years. All of the ESC patients escalated to a higher-efficacy DMT after a median time of 5.1 (3.1–8.4) years. The estimated baseline EDSS with relative confidence interval (95% CI) value was 2.52 (2.33-2.71) in the ESC group and 2.45 (2.26-2.64) in the EIT group. Mean delta-EDSS at each 12 month period were all significantly (p<0.02) higher in the ESC group compared to the EIT group. In particular, the mean delta-EDSS differences between the two groups tend to increase from 0.1 (0.01-0.19, p=0.03) at 1 year to 0.30 (0.07-0.53, p=0.009) at 5 years and to 0.67 (0.31-1.03, p=0.0003) at 10 years.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that EIT strategy is more effective than ESC strategy in controlling disability progression and the effect tends to increase over time despite patients in the ESC group escalated to a higher-efficacy DMT.

Collapse
Gender Differences, Hormones and Sex Chromosomes Oral Presentation

PS12.04 - Pregnancy in a modern day multiple sclerosis cohort: Predictors of relapse during pregnancy

Abstract

Background

Historically, disease activity diminished during pregnancy in women with relapsing-remitting MS. Today, women with high disease activity are more likely to attempt pregnancy due to the disease control that new therapies offer. But disease activity during pregnancy in the modern day remains understudied.

Objectives

Describe disease activity in a modern pregnancy cohort, grouped by preconception disease-modifying therapy (DMT) class; determine the predictors of relapse during pregnancy.

Methods

Data were obtained from the MSBase Registry. Term/preterm pregnancies conceived from 2011-2019 were included. DMT were classed by low, moderate and high-efficacy. Annualized relapse rates (ARR) were calculated for each pregnancy trimester and 12 months either side. Predictors of relapse during pregnancy were determined using clustered logistic regression.

Results

We included 1640 pregnancies from 1452 women. DMT used in the year before conception were none (n=346), low (n=845), moderate (n=207) and high-efficacy (n=242). Most common DMT in each class was interferon-beta (n=597), fingolimod (n=147) and natalizumab (n=219) for low, moderate and high-efficacy respectively. Conception EDSS ≥2 was more common in higher efficacy DMT groups (high: 41.3%; moderate 28.5%; low 22.4%; none 20.2%). For low-efficacy and no DMT groups, ARR fell through pregnancy. ARR of the moderate-efficacy group increased in the 1st pregnancy trimester (0.55 [95% CI 0.36-0.80] vs 0.14 [95% CI 0.10-0.21] on low-efficacy), then decreased to a trough in the third. Conversely, ARR steadily increased throughout pregnancy for those on high-efficacy DMT (3rd trimester: 0.42 [95% CI 0.25-0.66] vs 0.12 [95% CI 0.07-0.19] on low-efficacy). Higher efficacy DMT groups were associated with higher ARR in the early postpartum period (high: 0.84 [95% CI 0.62-1.1]; moderate: 0.90 [95% CI 0.65-1.2]; low: 0.47 [95% CI 0.38-0.58]). Preconception use of high and moderate-efficacy DMT and higher preconception ARR were predictors of relapse in pregnancy. But, continuation of high-efficacy DMT into pregnancy was protective against relapse (odds ratio 0.80 [95% CI 0.68-0.94]). Age ≥35 years was associated with reduced odds of relapse.

Conclusions

Women with RRMS treated with moderate or high-efficacy DMT are at greater risk of relapse during pregnancy. Careful pregnancy management, and use of long-acting high-efficacy DMT preconception, or continuing natalizumab into pregnancy, may prevent relapse in pregnancy.

Collapse

Author Of 6 Presentations

COVID-19 Late Breaking Abstracts

LB1235 - Frequency of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and COVID-19 severity in a cohort of Italian multiple sclerosis patients on DMTs inhibiting immune cell trafficking (ID 2116)

Speakers
Presentation Number
LB1235
Presentation Topic
COVID-19

Abstract

Background

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is provoking major concerns among physicians and people living with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) undergoing disease modifying treatments (DMT). As per today, we do not know what is the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on pwMS and undergoing treatment with DMTs inhibiting immune cell trafficking that are natalizumab (NTZ) and fingolimod (FTY), and vice versa what may be the effects of these drugs on the infection and related disease.

Objectives

To investigate the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and to report COVID-19 severity in pwMS on NTZ and FTY affiliated to the MS Centre of IRCCS Mondino, Pavia, Lombardy, Italy.

Methods

Roche SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (Elecsys®) was used to test serum samples from 106 pwMS (51 treated with NTZ and 55 with FTY). COVID-19 severity was assessed via a 7-point ordinal scale.

Results

Among our cohort of pwMS on NTZ or FTY, the frequency of antibody anti-SARS-CoV-2 was 15%.
Half of seropositive cases were asymptomatic; and half of symptomatic seropositive cases were pauci symptomatic. About 35% of our cohort of pwMS reported COVID-19 symptoms, none of them required hospitalization or die due COVID-19.

Conclusions

Despite we found a high frequency of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in our cohort of pwMS, half of seropositive cases were asymptomatic. None of symptomatic cases had a severe COVID-19 course. DMTs inhibiting immune cell trafficking seem to be safe in our cohort of pwMS and may be considered as a therapeutical option for highly active MS during COVID-19 pandemic.

Collapse
Biostatistical Methods Poster Presentation

P0018 - Variability of the response to immunotherapy among sub-groups of patients with multiple sclerosis (ID 1239)

Abstract

Background

Our current understanding of demographic and clinical modifiers of the effectiveness of multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies is limited.

Objectives

To assess whether patients’ response to disease modifying therapies (DMT) in MS varies by disease activity (annualised relapse rate, presence of new MRI lesions), disability, age, MS duration or disease phenotype.

Methods

Using the international MSBase registry, we selected patients with MS followed for ≥1 year, with ≥3 visits, ≥1 visit per year. Marginal structural models (MSMs) were used to compare the hazard ratios (HR) of 6-month confirmed worsening and improvement of disability (EDSS), and the incidence of relapses between treated and untreated periods. MSMs were continuously re-adjusted for patient age, sex, pregnancy, date, time from first symptom, prior relapse history, disability and MRI activity.

Results

Among 23 687 patients with relapsing MS, those on DMT experienced 20% greater chance of disability improvement [HR 1.20 (95% CI 1.0-1.5)], 47% lower risk of disability worsening [HR 0.53 (0.39-0.71)] and 51% reduction in relapses [HR 0.49 (0.43-0.55)]. The effect of DMT on relapses and EDSS worsening was attenuated with longer MS duration and higher prior relapse rate. The effect of DMT on EDSS improvement and relapses was more evident in low EDSS categories. DMT was associated with 51% EDSS improvement in patients without new MRI lesions [HR 1.51 (1.00-2.28)] compared to 4% in those with MRI activity [HR 1.04 (0.88-1.24)]. Among 26329 participants with relapsing or progressive MS, DMT was associated with 25% reduction in EDSS worsening and 42% reduction in relapses in patients with relapsing MS [HR 0.75 (0.65-0.86) and HR 0.58 (CI 0.54-62), respectively], while evidence for such beneficial effects of treatment in patients with progressive MS was not found [HR 1.11 (0.91-1.46) and HR 1.16 (0.91-1.46), respectively].

Conclusions

DMTs are associated with reduction in relapse frequency, progression of disability, and increased chance of recovery from disability. In general, the effectiveness of DMTs was most pronounced in subgroups with shorter MS duration, lower EDSS, lower relapse rate and relapsing MS phenotype.

Collapse
Epidemiology Poster Presentation

P0506 - Towards a validated Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis definition: A study from the Italian MS Register (ID 1432)

Abstract

Background

No clear metrics for sensitive and reliable identification of the transition from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) to secondary progressive (SP)MS are available.

Objectives

To compare diagnostic performances of two different data-driven Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis definitions.

Methods

patient with RRMS with a follow-up ≥5 years, with a current age ≥18 years, and with ≥3 EDSS scores recorded were selected from the Italian MS Registry. Annual incidence of SPMS conversion was reported as number of patients converting to SP every 100 patients/year. Three different SPMS definitions have been used. Data-driven definitions based on the Lorscheider’s algorithm (LA) and on the EXPAND trial inclusion criteria were validated, using the neurologist’s definition as gold standard, in terms of calibration, discrimination and goodness of fit by calculating: sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV), the Akaike information criterion (AIC), the Area Under the Curve (AUC). The overall calibration of the data-driven definitions was evaluated by the Calibration Slope test.

Results

a cohort of 10,240 RRMS patients was extracted from the Italian MS Registry. According to the neurologist judgment, 880 (8.59%) patients were classified as SPMS in the dataset. By applying the LA and the EXPAND definition, 1,806 (17.64%) and 1,134 (11.07%) patients, respectively, were classified as SPMS. The annual rate of SP conversion during the follow-up was 0.74 every 100 patients/year based on the neurologist’s definition, 1.57 every 100 patients/year using the LA and 0.94 every 100 patients/year applying the EXPAND definition. Both the data-driven definitions were well calibrated, with a p-value of the Calibration Slope test higher than 0.05 (LA=0.55; EXPAND definition=0.57). The AIC (LA=4301; EXPAND definition=5510) and the R-Square (LA=0.15 vs EXPAND definition=0.05), were in favor of the LA. The LA showed a greater discrimination power (AUC: 0.83 vs 0.65) and a higher sensitivity (77.1% vs 38.0%) in comparison to the EXPAND definition. Both definitions showed similar specificity (88.0% vs 91.5%). The PPV and the NPV were both higher using the LA than those obtained by the EXPAND definition (37.5% vs 29.5%; 97.6% vs 94.0%, respectively).

Conclusions

An accurate definition of SP transition is needed for a timely and efficacious treatment of SPMS patients. Real-world data from the Italian MS Registry suggests that data-driven definitions had a greater ability to capture SP transition than neurologist’s definition and that the global accuracy of LA seems to be higher than a definition based on the EXPAND trial inclusion criteria.

Collapse
Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0862 - Disability accrual in primary-progressive & secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (ID 1232)

Abstract

Background

Some cohort studies have reported similar onset age and disability accrual in primary and secondary progressive MS (PPMS, SPMS); others have reported later onset and faster disability accrual in SPMS. Comparisons are complicated by differences in baseline disability and exposure to disease-modifying therapies (DMT), and by lack of a standardized definition of SPMS.

Objectives

We compared hazards of disability accrual in PPMS and SPMS patients from the MSBase cohort using multivariable Cox models, applying validated diagnostic criteria for SPMS (Lorscheider et al., Brain 2016).

Methods

Inclusion required adult-onset progressive MS; ≥ 3 recorded Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores; and, for SPMS, initial records with EDSS ≤ 3 to allow objective identification of SPMS conversion. Phenotypes were subgrouped as active (PPMS-A, SPMS-A) if ≥ 1 progressive-phase relapse was recorded, and inactive (PPMS-N, SPMS-N) otherwise. Disability accrual was defined by sustained EDSS increases confirmed over ≥ 6 months. Hazard ratios (HR) for disability accrual were obtained using Andersen-Gill Cox models, adjusted for sex and time-varying age, disability, visit frequency, and proportion of time on DMT or immunosuppressive therapy. Sensitivity analyses were performed using (1) PPMS and SPMS diagnosed since 1995, and (2) physician-diagnosed SPMS. Cumulative probability of reaching EDSS ≥ 7 (wheelchair required) was assessed (Kaplan-Meier).

Results

5461 patients were included (1257 PPMS-N; 1308 PPMS-A; 1731 SPMS-N; 1165 SPMS-A). Age at progression onset was older in SPMS than PPMS (47.2 ± 10.2, vs. 41.5 ± 10.7 [mean ± SD]), and in the inactive subgroups of each phenotype. Hazard of disability accrual was decreased in SPMS relative to PPMS (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.78–0.92); decreased by proportion of time on DMT (HR 0.99 per 10% increment; 0.98–0.99); and higher in males (1.18; 1.12–1.25). Relative to PPMS-N, hazard was decreased in SPMS-A (0.79; 0.71–0.87) but similar for PPMS-A (1.01; 0.93–1.10) and SPMS-N (0.94; 0.85–1.05). Sensitivity analyses corroborated these results. However, patients with SPMS-A reached EDSS ≥ 7 at younger ages (cumulative probability 30% by 57, vs. 64–66 for SPMS-N, PPMS-A, PPMS-N).

Conclusions

Progressive phase onset is later in SPMS than PPMS. Hazard of disability accrual during the progressive phase is lower in SPMS than PPMS. However, patients with SPMS-A reach wheelchair requirement younger than other progressive phenotypes, reflecting earlier progression onset versus SPMS-N, and greater disability at onset versus PPMS

Collapse
Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0902 - Real world evidence of progression independent of relapsing activity among MS patients treated with Alemtuzumab. (ID 1165)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0902
Presentation Topic
Observational Studies

Abstract

Background

Background:Disability accumulation can result from progression independent of relapsing activity (PIRA) even during the RR phase.

Objectives

Aims: We assessed the contribution of PIRA to the development of permanent disability, among RRMS treated with Alemtuzumab(ATZ).

Methods

Methods: retrospective data from 147 RRMS patients, who received ATZ at Imperial College Healthcare Trust, followed up for 3 mean years. PIRA was defined as 1.5point increase of EDSS if baseline EDSS was 0, 1point increase if baseline EDSS was <5.5, or 0.5point increase if baseline EDSS was >= 5.5,90days from the previous relapse. The logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors affecting the risk of PIRA.

Results

Results In the whole group female predominated (60%), 19% were treatment naïve and 81% were escalated to ATZ from previous DMTs; 15% (n = 23) received one course of ATZ only. At first ATZ infusion, the mean age was 42 years, the mean disease duration was 8 years and the mean EDSS score was 4. During the observation period, the EDSS remained stable in 58% (n=84) or improved in 11% (n = 17), while it worsened by 1.5 mean point (min 0.5 max 4.5) in 31% (n = 46). Among patients who experienced EDSS worsening, disability accumulation was related to PIRA in 76% (n = 35), while in only a minority (n = 11) it resulted from relapse-associated worsening. Compared to the whole group, patients with PIRA had at first ATZ infusion same mean EDSS score (4, p =0.8), but they had longer disease duration (11 versus 7 mean years, p=0.007), were significantly older both at disease onset (36 vs 32 mean years, p=0.046) and at commencement of the therapy (47 vs 40 mean years, p=0.001). In addition, in the PIRA group vast majority (94%) of patients were escalated to ATZ after lack of response to previous DMTs. The logistic regression analysis confirmed that older age at first ATZ course (OR 6.7, p=0.037) and being escalated to ATZ from previous DMTs (OR 1.1, p= 0.002) are factors significantly associated with higher risk of PIRA.

Conclusions

Conclusions We confirmed in the real-world setting that in a large proportion of patients the disability accumulation can occur despite effective therapeutic relapse suppression. Older patients receiving ATZ as escalation therapy are more likely to experience PIRA.

Collapse
Reproductive Aspects and Pregnancy Poster Presentation

P1131 - Pregnancy in a modern day multiple sclerosis cohort: Predictors of postpartum relapse and disability progression (ID 1321)

Abstract

Background

Disease activity has been investigated in pregnant women with RRMS treated with low-efficacy or no therapy. How newer, more efficacious therapies affect relapse and disability progression risk after pregnancy remains understudied.

Objectives

To describe disease activity in a modern pregnancy cohort contrasted with historical cohorts. To determine the predictors of postpartum relapse and the predictors of six-month confirmed disability progression events in a contemporary pregnancy cohort.

Methods

Data were obtained from the MSBase Registry. Term/preterm pregnancies conceived from 2011-2019 (modern cohort) were compared with those conceived between 2005-2010 and pre-2005. Annualised relapse rates (ARR) were calculated for each pregnancy trimester and 12 months either side. Predictors of time-to-relapse postpartum (1st 3 months) and time to 6-month confirmed disability progression event were determined with clustered Cox regression analyses. Breastfeeding duration and time to DMT reinitiation were modelled as time-varying covariates.

Results

We included 1640 pregnancies from 1452 women (modern cohort). Disease-modifying therapy (DMT) used in the year before conception included interferon-beta (n=597), natalizumab (n=219) and fingolimod (n=147). Continuation of DMT up to conception increased over time (31% pre-2005 vs 54% modern cohort). Preconception ARR decreased across epochs (pre-2005: 0·58 [95% CI 0·49-0·70]; 2005-2010: 0·40 [95% CI 0·36-0·45]; modern: 0·29 [95% CI 0·27-0·32]). In all epochs, ARR decreased during pregnancy to reach similar troughs in the 3rd trimester, and rebounded in the 1st 3-months postpartum. Preconception use of high-efficacy DMT predicted early postpartum relapse (hazard ratio (HR) 2.1 [1.4-3.1]); although those on no DMT were also at risk of postpartum relapse, relative to women on low-efficacy DMT (HR 2.7 [1.2-5.9]). Conception EDSS 2, higher preconception and in-pregnancy ARR were also risk factors. DMT reinitiation, particularly of high-efficacy DMT (HR 0.17 [0.07-0.38]), was protective against postpartum relapse. Women who breastfed were less likely to relapse (HR 0.63 [0.42-0.94]). 4.5% of modern pregnancies had confirmed disability progression after delivery. This was predicted by higher pregnancy and postpartum ARR, with postpartum ARR remaining independently predictive in multivariable analysis (HR 1.5 [1.2-2.0]).

Conclusions

The early postpartum period remains a period of vulnerability for disease rebound in women with MS in the modern era. Early DMT reinitiation, particularly with high-efficacy treatment, is protective against postpartum relapse. Confirmed disability progression events after pregnnacy are uncommon in the modern era. Relapse activity is the key driver of these events.

Collapse