INERE

Author Of 7 Presentations

Clinical Trials Poster Presentation

P0240 - Therapeutic Decisions in MS Care: An International Study comparing Clinical Judgement vs. Information from Artificial Intelligence-Based Models (ID 752)

Abstract

Background

The rapidly evolving therapeutic landscape of multiple sclerosis (MS) can make treatment decisions challenging. Novel tools using artificial intelligence (AI) can provide estimations of MS disease progression, which may aid MS therapeutic decisions. However, whether neurologists are willing to utilize information provided by AI-based models when making therapeutic decisions is unknown.

Objectives

To assess whether neurologists rely on clinical judgment (CJ) or quantitative/ qualitative estimations of disease progression provided by hypothetical AI-based models (assuming these models can reliably identify patients at high vs. low risk of disease progression) in simulated MS case scenarios.

Methods

Overall, 231 neurologists with expertise in MS from 20 countries were randomized to receive qualitative (high/low) or quantitative (85-90% vs. 15-20%) information regarding the likelihood of disease progression. Participants were presented with simulated MS case scenarios, and initially made 7 treatment decisions based on the clinical information using CJ. After randomization, participants made 10 treatment decisions using CJ and estimations of disease progression provided by AI models. We evaluated concordance and discordance of therapeutic decisions based on CJ and AI. The primary outcome was the proportion of “optimal” treatment decisions defined as treatment escalation when there was evidence of disease progression or continuing the same treatment when clinically stable. Mixed models were used to determine the effect of randomization group, case risk level, and CJ/AI. Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT04035720

Results

Of 300 neurologists invited to participate, 231 (77.0%) completed the study. Study participants had a mean age (SD) of 44 (±10) years. Of 2310 responses, 1702 (73.7%) were classified as optimal. Optimal decisions were more common for the high-risk vs. low-risk CJ group (84.5% vs 57.6%; p<0.001). There were no differences in the estimated odds of optimal responses between the quantitative vs. qualitative groups (OR 1.09; 95%CI 0.86, 1.39) after adjustment for pre-intervention responses. The estimated odds of optimal decisions for the high-risk vs low-risk CJ group was 2.96 (95%CI: 2.47, 3.56 ) after adjusting for group, pre-intervention responses, and AI-based estimations. For low-risk CJ cases, additional input by AI-based estimations was associated with a lower likelihood of optimal responses; being worse for high-risk vs. low-risk AI estimations (OR 0.235; 95%CI: 0.16, 0.340) adjusting for covariables.

Conclusions

Neurologists were more likely to make optimal treatment choices for high-risk simulated scenarios. The addition of hypothetical information provided by AI-based models- did not improve treatment decisions for low-risk cases. These results provide a framework for understanding therapeutic decision-making in MS neurologists, who are more reliant on their own CJ over AI-based tools.

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Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management Poster Presentation

P0301 - Beyond pivotal trials inclusion criteria: real world clinical profile of multiple sclerosis patients under disease modifying treatment in Argentina. (ID 851)

Abstract

Background

Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS), randomized controlled trials (RCT) have provided relevant information about the efficacy and safety in ideal scenarios. While RCT are powerful tools for developing scientific evidence based on their high internal validity, there is always uncertainty about the generalizability, especially since the populations enrolled in such studies may differ in significant ways from those seen in clinical practice.

Objectives

Objective: to describe the frequency and clinical profile of MS patients under disease modifying treatment in Argentina that would have not fulfilled inclusion criteria in RCT.

Methods

Methods: MS patients included in the Argentinean MS and NMOSD registry (RelevarEM, NCT 03375177) were analyzed. RelevarEM is a longitudinal, strictly observational MS and NMOSD registry in Argentina. From May 2018 to March 2020, the centers and principal investigators were contacted and incorporated into the Registry. All patients with definite MS and receiving DMT at 31 December 2019 were screened, those with EDSS >6, phenotypes secondary progressive (SP) and primary progressive (PP)(with other DMT than ocrelizumab) and age <18 and >55 years old were included in the analysis.

Results

Results: A total of 1782 patients with MS receiving DMT were screened, of whom 465 (26%)would not have been included in a pivotal trial. From the 465,218 had and EDSS >6, 67 had phenotype SP and 19 PP; 292 were patients with <18 and >55 years of age (2 under 18 years old). Most prescribed DMT among patients with EDSS >6 was fingolimod (31%), among age >55 was beta interferon (35%), phenotype SP fingolimod (30%) and PP fingolimod and glatiramer acetate (each 26%).

Conclusions

Conclusion: in our registry, we found a significant number of MS patients who would have not been included in pivotal trials, receiving DMT. Real life evidence is highly relevant to assess effectiveness as well as safety of DMT in this subset of patients.

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Epidemiology Poster Presentation

P0427 - Absence of latitudinal gradient in oligoclonal bands prevalence in Argentina (ID 858)

Abstract

Background

Similarly, to what occurs with MS prevalence, it has been previously described that oligoclonal bands (OCB) prevalence follows a latitudinal gradient being more frequent farther away from the equator. Argentina has the particularity of being longitudinally extensive (21°46’S to 66°13’S). Previous epidemiological studies from Argentina have not found an MS prevalence latitudinal gradient.

Objectives

The aim of the present study is to describe the prevalence of OCB in CSF in patients with MS, CIS and RIS included in the Argentinean MS and NMOSD registry (RelevarEM, NCT 03375177) and to investigate if the prevalence follows a latitudinal gradient.

Methods

RelevarEM is a longitudinal, observational MS and NMOSD registry in Argentina. For each province, an average latitude was calculated using extreme N and S latitudes obtained from Google Maps. Regarding OCB, pattern II or III where considered as positive. The frequency of OCB was calculated for each diagnostic category (MS, CIS, RIS) and for each province. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v22. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was performed considering OCB as a dichotomic dependent variable and latitude as an ordinal independent variable, adjusted by clinically relevant variables. Also, the percentage of patients OCB positive for each province was calculated and linear correlation was tested.

Results

We included 2866 patients from different locations in Argentina (92.4% MS, 5.8% CIS and 1.8% RIS). The mean age at diagnosis (SD) was 32.7 (11.2), 35.2 (10.7) and 40.7 (11.2) for MS, CIS and RIS patients, respectively. Lumbar puncture was performed in 54.6%, 63.9%, and 43.4% of MS, CIS and RIS patients, respectively. OCB where positive in 75.4%, 55.7% and 60.9% of MS, CIS and RIS patients, respectively. No association was found between OCB positivity and latitude, adjusted by gender, age at diagnosis and diagnostic category. No linear correlation was found between the percentage of OCB positive patients and latitude.

Conclusions

Similarly, to what has been described regarding MS prevalence, OCB positivity does not seem to follow a latitudinal gradient in Argentina. Also, OCB positivity in our study is lower that described in previous reports from other world regions.

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Prognostic Factors Poster Presentation

P0460 - Factors Associated with Treatment Escalation in MS care: Results from an International Conjoint Study (ID 753)

Abstract

Background

Therapeutic inertia (TI) is a worldwide phenomenon affecting physicians who manage patients with chronic conditions. Previous studies in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) showed TI affects 60 to 90% of neurologists and up to 25% of daily treatment decisions.

Objectives

To determine the most important factors and levels of attributes associated with treatment escalation in an international sample of neurologists with expertise in the management of patients with MS.

Methods

We conducted an international study comprised of 300 neurologists with expertise in MS from 20 countries (Europe: 59.4%, Asia/Australia: 18.3%, America: 22.3%). Participants were presented with 12 pairs of simulated MS patient profiles reflective of case scenarios encountered in clinical practice. Patient profiles included information on age, sex, previous MS history of relapses, MRI findings, desire for pregnancy, and other relevant details. We used disaggregated discrete choice experiments (a conjoint analysis), which is a standard technique used in economic research to estimate the weight of factors and attributes (e.g. categories) affecting physicians’ decisions when considering treatment selection by asking respondents to choose between pairs of options. In our study, participants were asked to select the ideal candidate (Patient A, B or neither) for treatment escalation (from first-line to second-line therapies- eg. Fingolimod, Cladribine, Monoclonal antibodies).

Results

Of 300 neurologists invited to participate, 229 (76.3%) completed the study. The mean age (SD) of study participants was 44 (±10) years. The mean (SD) number of MS patients seen per week by each neurologist was 18 (±16).

The top 3 factors (relative importance) associated with treatment escalation were: previous relapses (20%), EDSS (18%), and MRI activity (13%). Patient demographics and desire for pregnancy had a modest influence (<3%) in treatment escalation.

Participants were 13% less likely to escalate treatment for patients with EDSS >7.0 (compared to EDSS <6.0), whereas symptom severity during most recent relapse and higher number of MRI lesions at 1 year were each associated with 6% higher likelihood of treatment escalation.

We observed differences in the weight of factors associated with treatment escalation between MS specialists and non-specialists and participants practicing in European vs. non-European countries.

Conclusions

This is the first study applying a conjoint design to assess factors associated with treatment escalation and therapeutic inertia in neurologists caring for people living with MS. Our results provide critical information on factors influencing neurologists’ treatment decisions and should be applied to continuing medical education strategies.

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Comorbidities Poster Presentation

P0483 - Prevalence of cancer in multiple sclerosis patients in Argentina: cross sectional study from RelevarEM (ID 1043)

Abstract

Background

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system of multifactorial origin. Studies about the prevalence of cancer in MS population are scarce and results are conflicting. Previous studies described a higher prevalence as well as an increased risk of cancer in MS patients while there are others that found no differences regarding general population.

Objectives

The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of cancer in a large sample of multiple sclerosis patients in Argentina.

Methods

the eligible study population and cohort selection included all patients with definite MS included in the Argentinean MS and NMOSD registry (RelevarEM, NCT 03375177) at 31 December 2019. History of current or past cancer diagnosis, was collected. Prevalence rates and 95% CI were calculated.

Results

We analyzed 2647 MS patients. 14 malignancies were identified. Overall prevalence of cancer was 0.53% (CI95% 0.02-0.08%). 78.6% were female, 85.8% relapsing remitting MS, median (IQR) disease duration: 10.5 (6-13) years; median (IQR) age at diagnosis: 42.5 (37-49); median (IQR) age at study date: 52.5, median (IQR); current EDSS: 2 (1.5-4.5); 42% patients were untreated and 58% under DMT (beta interferon 1a: 14.3%, 1b: 7.1%, glatiramer acetate: 7.1% and fingolimod: 28.6%). Most frequent malignancy was breast cancer (28.6%).

Conclusions

The prevalence of cancer in MS population identified in Argentina was 0.53% (CI 95% 0.02-0.08), being females more affected than males and breast cancer the most frequent one.

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Epidemiology Poster Presentation

P0493 - Severe infections in patients with multiple sclerosis: a nationwide registry study in Argentina (ID 929)

Abstract

Background

Data on the rates of infections among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are sparse and even more from Latin American countries.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to quantify the incidence of severe infections (SI) in patients with MS included in the Argentinean MS and NMOSD registry (RelevarEM, NCT 03375177).

Methods

RelevarEM is a longitudinal, strictly observational MS and NMOSD registry in Argentina. From May 2018 to March 2020, the centers and principal investigators were contacted and incorporated into the Registry. SI were defined as those that required intravenous treatment or that led to hospitalization or death. Patients contributed person-years of follow-up for the study period. Incidence rates and 95% CI were calculated.

Results

A total of 2158 patients with MS were included, mean age 42 (IIQ 34-52), 65,5% (1576) were female, 82,3% were RRMS. During the period (May 2018-March 2020), 28 SI were reported (IR 1.16, 95%CI 0.77-1.68). In patients with SI, the mean age was 54 (min 43- max 63, p<0.01) years, 11 (39%) were secondary progressive MS (p<0.01), the mean EDSS was 6.5 (range 5-8)(p<0.01), mean disease duration 12 years (p<0.01). 42% of patients were free of MS treatment while 17% were on injectables, 25% on orals and 10% on monoclonal antibodies (p=0.24). The most common sites of severe infection were the lower respiratory tract (39%)

Conclusions

IR of severe infection during the study period was 1.16 (95%CI 0.77-1.68). Most frequent SI were in SPMS and older patients while no relation was observed regarding MS treatment.

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Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0836 - Aggressive multiple sclerosis in Argentina: data from the nationwide registry RelevarEM (ID 1632)

Abstract

Background

Aggressive MS (AMS) describes a form of the disease with a rapid progressive course leading to significant disability in multiple neurologic systems or even death in a relatively short time after onset. Despite there being no consensus on the exact definition of AMS, several studies performed during the last years have tried to better identify and understand the frequency and distribution as well as the progression and treatment response in order to determine more accurately which patients with AMS would most benefit from higher-efficacy, higher-risk treatments

Objectives

The objectives of the present study were to describe the frequency of aggressive multiple sclerosis (AMS) as well as to compare clinical and radiological characteristics in AMS and non-AMS patients included in the Argentinean MS and NMOSD registry (RelevarEM, NCT 03375177).

Methods

The eligible study population and cohort selection included adult-onset patients (≥18 years) with definite MS. AMS were defined as those reaching confirmed EDSS ≥6 within 5 years from symptom onset. Confirmation was achieved when a subsequent EDSS ≥6 was recorded at least six months later but within 5 years of the first clinical presentation. AMS and non-AMS were compared using the χ2 test for categorical and the Mann-Whitney for continuous variables at MS onset and multivariable analysis was performed using forward stepwise logistic regression with baseline characteristics at disease onset.

Results

A total of 2158 patients with MS were included: 74 AMS and 2084 non-AMS. The prevalence of AMS in our cohort was 3.4% (95%CI 2.7-4.2). AMS were more likely to be male (p=0.003), older at MS onset (p<0.001), have primary progressive MS (PPMS) phenotype (p=0.03), multifocal presentation (p<0.001), and spinal cord as well as infratentorial lesions at MRI during disease onset (p=0.004 and p=0.002, respectively).

Conclusions

3.4% of our patient population could be considered AMS. Men, patients older at symptom onset, multifocal presentation, PPMS phenotype, and spinal cord as well as brainstem lesion on MRI at clinical presentation all had higher odds of having AMS.

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