Raúl Carrea Institute for Neurological Research

Author Of 3 Presentations

Disease Modifying Therapies – Risk Management Poster Presentation

P0301 - Beyond pivotal trials inclusion criteria: real world clinical profile of multiple sclerosis patients under disease modifying treatment in Argentina. (ID 851)

Abstract

Background

Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS), randomized controlled trials (RCT) have provided relevant information about the efficacy and safety in ideal scenarios. While RCT are powerful tools for developing scientific evidence based on their high internal validity, there is always uncertainty about the generalizability, especially since the populations enrolled in such studies may differ in significant ways from those seen in clinical practice.

Objectives

Objective: to describe the frequency and clinical profile of MS patients under disease modifying treatment in Argentina that would have not fulfilled inclusion criteria in RCT.

Methods

Methods: MS patients included in the Argentinean MS and NMOSD registry (RelevarEM, NCT 03375177) were analyzed. RelevarEM is a longitudinal, strictly observational MS and NMOSD registry in Argentina. From May 2018 to March 2020, the centers and principal investigators were contacted and incorporated into the Registry. All patients with definite MS and receiving DMT at 31 December 2019 were screened, those with EDSS >6, phenotypes secondary progressive (SP) and primary progressive (PP)(with other DMT than ocrelizumab) and age <18 and >55 years old were included in the analysis.

Results

Results: A total of 1782 patients with MS receiving DMT were screened, of whom 465 (26%)would not have been included in a pivotal trial. From the 465,218 had and EDSS >6, 67 had phenotype SP and 19 PP; 292 were patients with <18 and >55 years of age (2 under 18 years old). Most prescribed DMT among patients with EDSS >6 was fingolimod (31%), among age >55 was beta interferon (35%), phenotype SP fingolimod (30%) and PP fingolimod and glatiramer acetate (each 26%).

Conclusions

Conclusion: in our registry, we found a significant number of MS patients who would have not been included in pivotal trials, receiving DMT. Real life evidence is highly relevant to assess effectiveness as well as safety of DMT in this subset of patients.

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Epidemiology Poster Presentation

P0493 - Severe infections in patients with multiple sclerosis: a nationwide registry study in Argentina (ID 929)

Abstract

Background

Data on the rates of infections among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are sparse and even more from Latin American countries.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to quantify the incidence of severe infections (SI) in patients with MS included in the Argentinean MS and NMOSD registry (RelevarEM, NCT 03375177).

Methods

RelevarEM is a longitudinal, strictly observational MS and NMOSD registry in Argentina. From May 2018 to March 2020, the centers and principal investigators were contacted and incorporated into the Registry. SI were defined as those that required intravenous treatment or that led to hospitalization or death. Patients contributed person-years of follow-up for the study period. Incidence rates and 95% CI were calculated.

Results

A total of 2158 patients with MS were included, mean age 42 (IIQ 34-52), 65,5% (1576) were female, 82,3% were RRMS. During the period (May 2018-March 2020), 28 SI were reported (IR 1.16, 95%CI 0.77-1.68). In patients with SI, the mean age was 54 (min 43- max 63, p<0.01) years, 11 (39%) were secondary progressive MS (p<0.01), the mean EDSS was 6.5 (range 5-8)(p<0.01), mean disease duration 12 years (p<0.01). 42% of patients were free of MS treatment while 17% were on injectables, 25% on orals and 10% on monoclonal antibodies (p=0.24). The most common sites of severe infection were the lower respiratory tract (39%)

Conclusions

IR of severe infection during the study period was 1.16 (95%CI 0.77-1.68). Most frequent SI were in SPMS and older patients while no relation was observed regarding MS treatment.

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Microbiome Poster Presentation

P0671 - Exploring the gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis via the international MS Microbiome Study (iMSMS) (ID 1532)

Abstract

Background

The gut microbiota is emerging as a critical regulator of immune responses and appears to play an important role in MS. The International Multiple Sclerosis Microbiome study (iMSMS) is a global collaboration aimed at elucidating the role of commensal gut bacteria in MS by acquiring and analyzing samples from 2000 patients and 2000 household healthy controls.

Objectives

The iMSMS focuses on identifying the microbes, genes and pathways that are involved in MS pathogenesis and on investigating how the microbiome changes response to treatment.

Methods

A total of 576 case and household healthy control pairs were recruited from 7 centers located in the US (West and East coasts), Europe and South America. Stool samples were collected and evaluated by both 16S and shallow whole metagenome shotgun sequencing. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to understand patterns of variation on gut microbiome.

Results

This is the largest MS microbiome study reported to date. Our results showed a statistically significant difference of beta diversity between MS and healthy controls for the first time in MS. Intriguingly, multiple species of Akkermansia, including the known mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila, were significantly enriched in untreated MS patients after adjusting for confounding factors, but the difference was not detected in treated MS group versus control. Ruminococcus torques and Eisenbergiella tayi were also among the top significantly enriched bacteria in MS. Inversely, a main butyrate producer, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, was significantly decreased in the untreated MS group. Functional pathways of L-tryptophan biosynthesis and L-threonine biosynthesis were slightly increased in untreated MS patients, while 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis I was increased in the treated group.

Conclusions

Our large household-controlled study allowed us to identify modest but statistically robust MS-associated changes in bacterial composition and functions. It provides the foundation for all future studies of the gut microbiota in MS. The strain-level genomic variation and microbiome-derived molecules need to be further explored for understanding microbial adaptation and pathogenicity.

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