Author Of 2 Presentations
P0024 - Alemtuzumab slowed brain atrophy over 6 years in patients without relapse and MRI disease activity: post hoc analysis of the pooled CARE-MS studies (ID 784)
Over 2 years in the CARE-MS trials (NCT00530348; NCT00548405), alemtuzumab (12 mg/day; baseline (BL): 5 days; 12 months later: 3 days) significantly improved clinical and MRI outcomes versus subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (SC IFNB-1a) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Alemtuzumab efficacy was maintained through a 4-year extension study (NCT00930553), wherein patients could receive additional 3-day courses (≥12 months apart, as needed for disease activity) or receive other disease-modifying therapy per investigator’s discretion.
To evaluate post hoc the effects of alemtuzumab on brain atrophy over 6 years in CARE-MS patients without relapses and MRI disease activity.
Analysis included pooled CARE-MS patients with or without disease activity between BL and Year 1 or BL and Year 2. Absence of disease activity was defined as no BL gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing T1 lesions and no clinical relapses or MRI disease activity (new Gd-enhancing or new/enlarging T2 lesions) from Years 0-1 or Years 0-2 (Definition 1). A second definition had the additional criterion of no relapse within 60 days before BL (Definition 2). Brain atrophy was measured by brain parenchymal fraction (BPF); differences in the median annualized percent change in BPF were assessed using ranked ANCOVA adjusted for region and BL BPF.
Compared with SC IFNB-1a, alemtuzumab reduced median annualized percent change in BPF in patients free of disease activity during Years 0-1 (Definition 1: -0.37% vs -0.61%, P=0.006; Definition 2: -0.36% vs -0.54%, P=0.024) or Years 0-2 (Definition 1: -0.27% vs -0.44%, P=0.014; Definition 2: -0.28% vs -0.41%, P=0.045). Median annualized percent change in BPF was reduced with alemtuzumab versus SC IFNB-1a in patients with disease activity in Years 0-1 (-0.61% vs -0.79%, P=0.005) or Years 0-2 (-0.40% vs -0.56%, P<0.0001). Over 6 years, brain volume loss (BVL) was slower in patients without disease activity who initiated alemtuzumab at core study BL (-1.66%) than in those who received SC IFNB-1a in the core studies and initiated alemtuzumab in the extension (-2.05%).
Brain atrophy was reduced with alemtuzumab compared with SC IFNB-1a in patients without disease activity over 2 years. A slower rate of BVL was maintained through Year 6 in patients without disease activity who received alemtuzumab in the core study compared with SC IFNB-1a, suggesting alemtuzumab may slow neurodegeneration associated with BVL.
STUDY SUPPORT: Sanofi.
P0577 - Feasibility of thalamic atrophy measurement in clinical routine using artificial intelligence: Results from multi-center study in RRMS patients (ID 1058)
The thalamus is a key gray matter structure, and a sensitive marker of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous reports have indicated that thalamic volumetry on clinical-quality T2-FLAIR images alone is fast and reliable, using artificial intelligence (AI).
To investigate the feasibility of thalamic atrophy measurement using AI in patients with MS, in a large multi-center, clinical routine study.
DeepGRAI (Deep Gray Rating via Artificial Intelligence) is a multi-center (31 USA sites), longitudinal, observational, real-word, registry study that will enroll 1,000 relapsing-remitting MS patients. Brain MRI exams previously acquired at baseline and at follow-up on 1.5T or 3T scanners with no prior standardization are used, in order to resemble real-world situation. Thalamic volume measurement is performed at baseline and follow-up on T2-FLAIR by DeepGRAI tool and on 3D T1-weighted image (WI) and 2D T1-WI by using FIRST software.
In this pre-planned interim analysis, 515 RRMS patients were followed for an average of 2.7 years. There were 487 (94.6%) T2-FLAIR, 342 (66.4%) 2D T1-WI and 176 (34.2%) 3D T1-WI longitudinal pair of MRI exams available for analyses. Estimation of thalamic volume by DeepGRAI on T2-FLAIR correlated significantly with FIRST on 3D-T1-WI (r=0.733 and r=0.816, p<0.001) and with FIRST on 2D-T1-WI (r=0.555 and r=0.704, p<0.001) at baseline and at follow-up. The correlation between thalamic volume estimated by FIRST on 3D T1-WI and 2D T1-WI was r=0.642 and r=0.679, p<0.001, respectively. The thalamic volume % change over the follow-up was similar between DeepGRAI (-0.75) and 3D T1-WI (-0.82), but somewhat higher for 2D T1-WI (-0.92). Similar relationship was found between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and thalamic volume by DeepGRAI on T2-FLAIR and by FIRST on 3D T1-WI at baseline (r=-0.214, p=0.01 and r=-0.287, p=0.001) and at follow-up (r=-0.298, p=0.001 and r=-0.291, p=0.001).
DeepGRAI provides feasible thalamic volume measurement on multi-center clinical-quality T2-FLAIR images. The relationship between thalamic atrophy and physical disability is similar using DeepGRAI T2-FLAIR and standard high-resolution research approaches. This indicates potential for real-world thalamic volume monitoring, as well as quantification on legacy datasets without research-quality MRI.