University of Montreal
Neuroscience

Author Of 1 Presentation

Gender Differences, Hormones and Sex Chromosomes Oral Presentation

PS12.04 - Pregnancy in a modern day multiple sclerosis cohort: Predictors of relapse during pregnancy

Abstract

Background

Historically, disease activity diminished during pregnancy in women with relapsing-remitting MS. Today, women with high disease activity are more likely to attempt pregnancy due to the disease control that new therapies offer. But disease activity during pregnancy in the modern day remains understudied.

Objectives

Describe disease activity in a modern pregnancy cohort, grouped by preconception disease-modifying therapy (DMT) class; determine the predictors of relapse during pregnancy.

Methods

Data were obtained from the MSBase Registry. Term/preterm pregnancies conceived from 2011-2019 were included. DMT were classed by low, moderate and high-efficacy. Annualized relapse rates (ARR) were calculated for each pregnancy trimester and 12 months either side. Predictors of relapse during pregnancy were determined using clustered logistic regression.

Results

We included 1640 pregnancies from 1452 women. DMT used in the year before conception were none (n=346), low (n=845), moderate (n=207) and high-efficacy (n=242). Most common DMT in each class was interferon-beta (n=597), fingolimod (n=147) and natalizumab (n=219) for low, moderate and high-efficacy respectively. Conception EDSS ≥2 was more common in higher efficacy DMT groups (high: 41.3%; moderate 28.5%; low 22.4%; none 20.2%). For low-efficacy and no DMT groups, ARR fell through pregnancy. ARR of the moderate-efficacy group increased in the 1st pregnancy trimester (0.55 [95% CI 0.36-0.80] vs 0.14 [95% CI 0.10-0.21] on low-efficacy), then decreased to a trough in the third. Conversely, ARR steadily increased throughout pregnancy for those on high-efficacy DMT (3rd trimester: 0.42 [95% CI 0.25-0.66] vs 0.12 [95% CI 0.07-0.19] on low-efficacy). Higher efficacy DMT groups were associated with higher ARR in the early postpartum period (high: 0.84 [95% CI 0.62-1.1]; moderate: 0.90 [95% CI 0.65-1.2]; low: 0.47 [95% CI 0.38-0.58]). Preconception use of high and moderate-efficacy DMT and higher preconception ARR were predictors of relapse in pregnancy. But, continuation of high-efficacy DMT into pregnancy was protective against relapse (odds ratio 0.80 [95% CI 0.68-0.94]). Age ≥35 years was associated with reduced odds of relapse.

Conclusions

Women with RRMS treated with moderate or high-efficacy DMT are at greater risk of relapse during pregnancy. Careful pregnancy management, and use of long-acting high-efficacy DMT preconception, or continuing natalizumab into pregnancy, may prevent relapse in pregnancy.

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Moderator Of 1 Session

Hot Topics Sun, Sep 13, 2020
Session Type
Hot Topics
Date
Sun, Sep 13, 2020
Time (ET)
09:15 - 10:00

Author Of 7 Presentations

Biostatistical Methods Poster Presentation

P0018 - Variability of the response to immunotherapy among sub-groups of patients with multiple sclerosis (ID 1239)

Abstract

Background

Our current understanding of demographic and clinical modifiers of the effectiveness of multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies is limited.

Objectives

To assess whether patients’ response to disease modifying therapies (DMT) in MS varies by disease activity (annualised relapse rate, presence of new MRI lesions), disability, age, MS duration or disease phenotype.

Methods

Using the international MSBase registry, we selected patients with MS followed for ≥1 year, with ≥3 visits, ≥1 visit per year. Marginal structural models (MSMs) were used to compare the hazard ratios (HR) of 6-month confirmed worsening and improvement of disability (EDSS), and the incidence of relapses between treated and untreated periods. MSMs were continuously re-adjusted for patient age, sex, pregnancy, date, time from first symptom, prior relapse history, disability and MRI activity.

Results

Among 23 687 patients with relapsing MS, those on DMT experienced 20% greater chance of disability improvement [HR 1.20 (95% CI 1.0-1.5)], 47% lower risk of disability worsening [HR 0.53 (0.39-0.71)] and 51% reduction in relapses [HR 0.49 (0.43-0.55)]. The effect of DMT on relapses and EDSS worsening was attenuated with longer MS duration and higher prior relapse rate. The effect of DMT on EDSS improvement and relapses was more evident in low EDSS categories. DMT was associated with 51% EDSS improvement in patients without new MRI lesions [HR 1.51 (1.00-2.28)] compared to 4% in those with MRI activity [HR 1.04 (0.88-1.24)]. Among 26329 participants with relapsing or progressive MS, DMT was associated with 25% reduction in EDSS worsening and 42% reduction in relapses in patients with relapsing MS [HR 0.75 (0.65-0.86) and HR 0.58 (CI 0.54-62), respectively], while evidence for such beneficial effects of treatment in patients with progressive MS was not found [HR 1.11 (0.91-1.46) and HR 1.16 (0.91-1.46), respectively].

Conclusions

DMTs are associated with reduction in relapse frequency, progression of disability, and increased chance of recovery from disability. In general, the effectiveness of DMTs was most pronounced in subgroups with shorter MS duration, lower EDSS, lower relapse rate and relapsing MS phenotype.

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Clinical Outcome Measures Poster Presentation

P0106 - Long-term single-centre experience with natalizumab. (ID 365)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0106
Presentation Topic
Clinical Outcome Measures

Abstract

Background

Natalizumab (NZB) is a disease-modifying treatment (DMT) used in persons with MS (PwMS) with an active relapsing course, either as a first-line, or after previous treatments.

The principal biological effect of NZB is thought to be the blockade of the molecular interaction between α4β1-integrin (also known as very late antigen-4) expressed by mononuclear inflammatory cells, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (CAM-1) expressed by cerebral vascular endothelial cells.

NZB is a potent DMT which must be monitored with caution, its use being hampered by the risk of opportunistic infections, mostly progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).

Objectives

To document the efficacy and safety of NZB for the treatment of RRMS in a population of persons with MS (PwMS) followed in a regular MS Clinic setting.

Methods

We report our single-centre experience over a period of 13 years: from JAN 2007 through the end of May 2020.

All PwMS treated with NZB were included, regardless of the treatment duration.

The retainment of patients in our MS Clinic is 95%.

We use the iMed database, an international MS registry. .

Results

We report on 230 PwMS, 159 women, 71 men treated with NZB since 2007, up to 30 April 2020.

We had no PML case. We had 2 PML 'clinical alerts', but CSF search for JC virus (JCV) was negative.

There was no rebound of activity, nor IRIS, after NZB cessation, as we usually quickly switch to an alternative DMT.

Median age at MS onset: 26.3 years. Median age at NZB initiation: 35 years. Median disease duration before treatment: 8.07 years.

First line use: 94. Previous BRACE DMT: 136.

Risk factors: previous immuno-suppression: 7; NZB duration > 24 months: 112; JCV index > 1: 81.

Median treatment duration: 23 months; still active: 71 including 7 after > 6 years.

ARR at NZB onset: 1.5; during NZB: 0.27; current: 0.89.

Median EDSS at NZB start: 3.0. Current median EDSS: 2.8. EDSS stable: 65, worsened: 58; improved: 60.

MRI: stable: 133 (58%) ; improved: 5 (2%); worsened: 35 (25%).

Conversion to SPMS: 48 (20%) 29 W, 19 M.

Reasons for NZB cessation: planned: 27; pregnancy: 3; loss of efficacy: 39; increased JCV index: 62. No blood toxicity (CBC, ALT).

We had 9 pregnancies: 4 planned interruptions; 5 full term, with normal babies.

Treatment after NZB cessation: 48 fingolimod, glatiramer: 17; ocrelizumab: 16; others: 29; none: 32 (no rebound observed).

One patient had COVID 1 year after NZB: complete recovery; needed only nasal O2 during 3 day hospital admission.

Conclusions

NZB, when used with caution, is an effective and safe MS DMT during the RRMS phase, even after extended disease and treatment durations.

NZB is most effective to reduce relapse frequency, less effective against progression, as 20% of PwMS transited to the secondary progressive phase.

Gender, disease duration, and age do not influence outcomes.

We encountered no significant toxicity, in particular no PML.

Clinical, JCV index measures, and MRI monitoring are paramount to maintain safety.

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Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0859 - Comparative effectiveness of natalizumab, fingolimod, and first-line therapies for rapidly evolving severe relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (ID 1551)

Abstract

Background

Natalizumab and fingolimod are indicated in the EU for patients with rapidly evolving severe relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RES RRMS; ≥2 relapses in 1 year and ≥1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions or increased T2 lesion numbers on MRI) or highly active RRMS. Patients with RRMS may also receive first-line therapies (interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, dimethyl fumarate, or teriflunomide; collectively BRACETD). Effectiveness comparisons of therapies in patients with RES RRMS are lacking.

Objectives

To compare the clinical effectiveness of natalizumab, fingolimod, and BRACETD in patients with RES RRMS in real-world settings.

Methods

Data from the MSBase registry as of August 2019 were used. Adults with RRMS, ≥2 relapses in the past 12 months, and available Expanded Disability Status Scale scores at baseline (BL) and on therapy were included. At index date, patients were treatment naive or had switched from BRACETD to natalizumab, fingolimod, or another BRACETD. Patients were propensity score matched 1:1:1 based on BL demographic and clinical variables. Annualized relapse rates (ARRs) were compared using a generalised estimating equation Poisson regression model. Other outcomes (time to first relapse, 6-month confirmed disability worsening [CDW], and 6-month confirmed disability improvement [CDI]) were analysed using Cox marginal regression models.

Results

Matched treatment groups included 721 triplets of patients with mean follow-up of approximately 3 years. In each group, 23.3–23.9% of patients were treatment naïve. ARR (95% CI) was lowest with natalizumab (0.18 [0.17–0.20]) followed by fingolimod (0.29 [0.26–0.31]) and BRACETD (0.39 [0.37–0.42]; P<0.001 for all comparisons); rate ratio (95% CI) vs BRACETD was 0.46 (0.42–0.53) for natalizumab and 0.72 (0.65–0.80) for fingolimod. Risk of first relapse was lower with natalizumab vs fingolimod (hazard ratio [HR] [95% CI], 0.63 [0.53–0.74]) or BRACETD (0.41 [0.36–0.48]; P<0.001 for both) and with fingolimod vs BRACETD (0.66 [0.57–0.76]; P<0.001). No differences in CDW were observed. CDI was more likely with natalizumab than with fingolimod (HR [95% CI], 1.25 [1.01–1.55]; P=0.047) or BRACETD (1.46 [1.16–1.85]; P=0.002). CDI was not significantly different between fingolimod and BRACETD (HR [95% CI], 1.17 [0.91–1.50]; P=0.209).

Conclusions

In this large cohort of patients with RES RRMS treated in real-world settings, natalizumab was more effective than fingolimod or BRACETD at reducing relapses. Natalizumab patients were also 25% and 46% more likely to exhibit CDI than fingolimod and BRACETD patients, respectively.

This study was supported by Biogen International (Zug, Switzerland).

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Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0862 - Disability accrual in primary-progressive & secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (ID 1232)

Abstract

Background

Some cohort studies have reported similar onset age and disability accrual in primary and secondary progressive MS (PPMS, SPMS); others have reported later onset and faster disability accrual in SPMS. Comparisons are complicated by differences in baseline disability and exposure to disease-modifying therapies (DMT), and by lack of a standardized definition of SPMS.

Objectives

We compared hazards of disability accrual in PPMS and SPMS patients from the MSBase cohort using multivariable Cox models, applying validated diagnostic criteria for SPMS (Lorscheider et al., Brain 2016).

Methods

Inclusion required adult-onset progressive MS; ≥ 3 recorded Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores; and, for SPMS, initial records with EDSS ≤ 3 to allow objective identification of SPMS conversion. Phenotypes were subgrouped as active (PPMS-A, SPMS-A) if ≥ 1 progressive-phase relapse was recorded, and inactive (PPMS-N, SPMS-N) otherwise. Disability accrual was defined by sustained EDSS increases confirmed over ≥ 6 months. Hazard ratios (HR) for disability accrual were obtained using Andersen-Gill Cox models, adjusted for sex and time-varying age, disability, visit frequency, and proportion of time on DMT or immunosuppressive therapy. Sensitivity analyses were performed using (1) PPMS and SPMS diagnosed since 1995, and (2) physician-diagnosed SPMS. Cumulative probability of reaching EDSS ≥ 7 (wheelchair required) was assessed (Kaplan-Meier).

Results

5461 patients were included (1257 PPMS-N; 1308 PPMS-A; 1731 SPMS-N; 1165 SPMS-A). Age at progression onset was older in SPMS than PPMS (47.2 ± 10.2, vs. 41.5 ± 10.7 [mean ± SD]), and in the inactive subgroups of each phenotype. Hazard of disability accrual was decreased in SPMS relative to PPMS (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.78–0.92); decreased by proportion of time on DMT (HR 0.99 per 10% increment; 0.98–0.99); and higher in males (1.18; 1.12–1.25). Relative to PPMS-N, hazard was decreased in SPMS-A (0.79; 0.71–0.87) but similar for PPMS-A (1.01; 0.93–1.10) and SPMS-N (0.94; 0.85–1.05). Sensitivity analyses corroborated these results. However, patients with SPMS-A reached EDSS ≥ 7 at younger ages (cumulative probability 30% by 57, vs. 64–66 for SPMS-N, PPMS-A, PPMS-N).

Conclusions

Progressive phase onset is later in SPMS than PPMS. Hazard of disability accrual during the progressive phase is lower in SPMS than PPMS. However, patients with SPMS-A reach wheelchair requirement younger than other progressive phenotypes, reflecting earlier progression onset versus SPMS-N, and greater disability at onset versus PPMS

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Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0907 - Real-world experience with Cladribine Tablets in the MSBase Registry (ID 1587)

Abstract

Background

Cladribine tablets are approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in many jurisdictions. Real-world outcomes data is very limited.

Objectives

We analysed the cladribine treatment experience in the MSBase registry. We described baseline characteristics, treatment pathways, and relapse and discontinuation outcomes in patients with ≥6 months follow-up data from cladribine initiation.

Methods

We performed a secondary data analysis using MSBase Registry data of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of MS and newly treated with cladribine tablets after regulatory approval. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze baseline patient characteristics recorded within 3 months prior to cladribine tablets initiation, including demographics, disease course and duration, prior disease modifying drugs (DMD), and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS).

Results

As of the 4th June 2020, MSBase included 660 patients treated with cladribine from 9 countries, mainly from Australia and Europe. A total of 576 met all inclusion criteria. These included 496 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients. In these, median age at cladribine tablets start was 45 years and median disease duration since clinically isolated syndrome was 12.6 years. Median EDSS at cladribine tablets start was 2.5. Around 13% of all RRMS patients initiated cladribine tablets as first line therapy. Of all RRMS patients switching to cladribine tablets with a treatment gap of <6 months, the most common immediate prior DMDs were fingolimod (17%), followed by natalizumab, teriflunomide and dimethylfumarate (all appx. 10%). Total follow-up time was 340 patient-years. Annualised relapse rate (ARR) on cladribine tablets was 0.12 (95%CI 0.09-0.17), compared to a pre-cladribine ARR of 0.38. Treatment persistence was 95% after 12 months (95%CI 91-98%), and 92% after 24 months (95%CI 87-96%).

Conclusions

This study characterizes RRMS patients treated with cladribine tablets in a real-world clinic setting. First-line use was uncommon. ARR was low, consistent with clinical trial data, and early discontinuations were very rare.

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Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0909 - Real-world experience with Ocrelizumab in the MSBase Registry (ID 1559)

Abstract

Background

Ocrelizumab (OCR) is a humanised anti-CD20+ monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), and relapsing forms of MS, including both relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) with relapses.

Objectives

In a real-world setting, to describe 1) baseline characteristics of patients with MS treated with OCR, 2) treatment pathway across lines of therapy up to initiation of OCR, and 3) initial clinical experience in patients with ≥6 months follow-up data from OCR initiation.

Methods

Secondary data analysis using MSBase Registry data including patients with a confirmed diagnosis of MS and started OCR therapy within 3 months prior to or at time of MSBase eligible/initial visit. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze baseline patient characteristics' recorded within 3 months of OCR initiation, including demographics, disease course and duration, prior disease modifying therapies (DMT), and EDSS. Occurrence of relapse was analyzed in patients with ≥6 months follow-up data from OCR initiation.

Results

As of 4th June 2020, MSBase included 2531 patients newly treated with OCR, of whom 1679 had an EDSS evaluation within 3 months of OCR start. There were 1185 patients with RRMS, 236 with SPMS, and 183 with PPMS. Median age at OCR initiation was 41.9 years, 49.5 years, to 50.1 years in RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS, respectively. Mean disease duration from symptom onset up to OCR initiation was longer in SPMS (19.7 years) than in RRMS (10.6 years) and PPMS (9.7 years). OCR was initiated as first line therapy in 17.5%, 5.5%, and 54.2% of RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS patients respectively. Most frequent previous DMT’s in RRMS were fingolimod (25.7%) and natalizumab (23.5%). 693 patients with RRMS had ≥6 months follow-up during OCR exposure. Of these, 643 remained relapse free (93%; 95% CI 86.0, 100.0) over a mean OCR exposure of 1.23 years. The annualized relapse rate (ARR) was 0.08 (95% CI 0.06-0.10), compared to an ARR of 0.85 in the 24 months pre-OCR start. In the overall cohort, treatment persistence at 12 and 24 months was 98.4% (95% CI: 97.3-9.1%) and 92.5% (95%CI 89-95%), respectively.

Conclusions

This study characterizes an international population of patients with RRMS, PPMS, and SPMS newly treated with OCR in a real-world clinical setting. First-line use was uncommon in RRMS and SPMS. During OCR treatment, ARR was below 0.1, and OCR discontinuations were very rare.

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Reproductive Aspects and Pregnancy Poster Presentation

P1131 - Pregnancy in a modern day multiple sclerosis cohort: Predictors of postpartum relapse and disability progression (ID 1321)

Abstract

Background

Disease activity has been investigated in pregnant women with RRMS treated with low-efficacy or no therapy. How newer, more efficacious therapies affect relapse and disability progression risk after pregnancy remains understudied.

Objectives

To describe disease activity in a modern pregnancy cohort contrasted with historical cohorts. To determine the predictors of postpartum relapse and the predictors of six-month confirmed disability progression events in a contemporary pregnancy cohort.

Methods

Data were obtained from the MSBase Registry. Term/preterm pregnancies conceived from 2011-2019 (modern cohort) were compared with those conceived between 2005-2010 and pre-2005. Annualised relapse rates (ARR) were calculated for each pregnancy trimester and 12 months either side. Predictors of time-to-relapse postpartum (1st 3 months) and time to 6-month confirmed disability progression event were determined with clustered Cox regression analyses. Breastfeeding duration and time to DMT reinitiation were modelled as time-varying covariates.

Results

We included 1640 pregnancies from 1452 women (modern cohort). Disease-modifying therapy (DMT) used in the year before conception included interferon-beta (n=597), natalizumab (n=219) and fingolimod (n=147). Continuation of DMT up to conception increased over time (31% pre-2005 vs 54% modern cohort). Preconception ARR decreased across epochs (pre-2005: 0·58 [95% CI 0·49-0·70]; 2005-2010: 0·40 [95% CI 0·36-0·45]; modern: 0·29 [95% CI 0·27-0·32]). In all epochs, ARR decreased during pregnancy to reach similar troughs in the 3rd trimester, and rebounded in the 1st 3-months postpartum. Preconception use of high-efficacy DMT predicted early postpartum relapse (hazard ratio (HR) 2.1 [1.4-3.1]); although those on no DMT were also at risk of postpartum relapse, relative to women on low-efficacy DMT (HR 2.7 [1.2-5.9]). Conception EDSS 2, higher preconception and in-pregnancy ARR were also risk factors. DMT reinitiation, particularly of high-efficacy DMT (HR 0.17 [0.07-0.38]), was protective against postpartum relapse. Women who breastfed were less likely to relapse (HR 0.63 [0.42-0.94]). 4.5% of modern pregnancies had confirmed disability progression after delivery. This was predicted by higher pregnancy and postpartum ARR, with postpartum ARR remaining independently predictive in multivariable analysis (HR 1.5 [1.2-2.0]).

Conclusions

The early postpartum period remains a period of vulnerability for disease rebound in women with MS in the modern era. Early DMT reinitiation, particularly with high-efficacy treatment, is protective against postpartum relapse. Confirmed disability progression events after pregnnacy are uncommon in the modern era. Relapse activity is the key driver of these events.

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Presenter Of 1 Presentation

Clinical Outcome Measures Poster Presentation

P0106 - Long-term single-centre experience with natalizumab. (ID 365)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P0106
Presentation Topic
Clinical Outcome Measures

Abstract

Background

Natalizumab (NZB) is a disease-modifying treatment (DMT) used in persons with MS (PwMS) with an active relapsing course, either as a first-line, or after previous treatments.

The principal biological effect of NZB is thought to be the blockade of the molecular interaction between α4β1-integrin (also known as very late antigen-4) expressed by mononuclear inflammatory cells, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (CAM-1) expressed by cerebral vascular endothelial cells.

NZB is a potent DMT which must be monitored with caution, its use being hampered by the risk of opportunistic infections, mostly progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).

Objectives

To document the efficacy and safety of NZB for the treatment of RRMS in a population of persons with MS (PwMS) followed in a regular MS Clinic setting.

Methods

We report our single-centre experience over a period of 13 years: from JAN 2007 through the end of May 2020.

All PwMS treated with NZB were included, regardless of the treatment duration.

The retainment of patients in our MS Clinic is 95%.

We use the iMed database, an international MS registry. .

Results

We report on 230 PwMS, 159 women, 71 men treated with NZB since 2007, up to 30 April 2020.

We had no PML case. We had 2 PML 'clinical alerts', but CSF search for JC virus (JCV) was negative.

There was no rebound of activity, nor IRIS, after NZB cessation, as we usually quickly switch to an alternative DMT.

Median age at MS onset: 26.3 years. Median age at NZB initiation: 35 years. Median disease duration before treatment: 8.07 years.

First line use: 94. Previous BRACE DMT: 136.

Risk factors: previous immuno-suppression: 7; NZB duration > 24 months: 112; JCV index > 1: 81.

Median treatment duration: 23 months; still active: 71 including 7 after > 6 years.

ARR at NZB onset: 1.5; during NZB: 0.27; current: 0.89.

Median EDSS at NZB start: 3.0. Current median EDSS: 2.8. EDSS stable: 65, worsened: 58; improved: 60.

MRI: stable: 133 (58%) ; improved: 5 (2%); worsened: 35 (25%).

Conversion to SPMS: 48 (20%) 29 W, 19 M.

Reasons for NZB cessation: planned: 27; pregnancy: 3; loss of efficacy: 39; increased JCV index: 62. No blood toxicity (CBC, ALT).

We had 9 pregnancies: 4 planned interruptions; 5 full term, with normal babies.

Treatment after NZB cessation: 48 fingolimod, glatiramer: 17; ocrelizumab: 16; others: 29; none: 32 (no rebound observed).

One patient had COVID 1 year after NZB: complete recovery; needed only nasal O2 during 3 day hospital admission.

Conclusions

NZB, when used with caution, is an effective and safe MS DMT during the RRMS phase, even after extended disease and treatment durations.

NZB is most effective to reduce relapse frequency, less effective against progression, as 20% of PwMS transited to the secondary progressive phase.

Gender, disease duration, and age do not influence outcomes.

We encountered no significant toxicity, in particular no PML.

Clinical, JCV index measures, and MRI monitoring are paramount to maintain safety.

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