Dokuz Eylul University

Author Of 1 Presentation

Gender Differences, Hormones and Sex Chromosomes Oral Presentation

PS12.04 - Pregnancy in a modern day multiple sclerosis cohort: Predictors of relapse during pregnancy

Abstract

Background

Historically, disease activity diminished during pregnancy in women with relapsing-remitting MS. Today, women with high disease activity are more likely to attempt pregnancy due to the disease control that new therapies offer. But disease activity during pregnancy in the modern day remains understudied.

Objectives

Describe disease activity in a modern pregnancy cohort, grouped by preconception disease-modifying therapy (DMT) class; determine the predictors of relapse during pregnancy.

Methods

Data were obtained from the MSBase Registry. Term/preterm pregnancies conceived from 2011-2019 were included. DMT were classed by low, moderate and high-efficacy. Annualized relapse rates (ARR) were calculated for each pregnancy trimester and 12 months either side. Predictors of relapse during pregnancy were determined using clustered logistic regression.

Results

We included 1640 pregnancies from 1452 women. DMT used in the year before conception were none (n=346), low (n=845), moderate (n=207) and high-efficacy (n=242). Most common DMT in each class was interferon-beta (n=597), fingolimod (n=147) and natalizumab (n=219) for low, moderate and high-efficacy respectively. Conception EDSS ≥2 was more common in higher efficacy DMT groups (high: 41.3%; moderate 28.5%; low 22.4%; none 20.2%). For low-efficacy and no DMT groups, ARR fell through pregnancy. ARR of the moderate-efficacy group increased in the 1st pregnancy trimester (0.55 [95% CI 0.36-0.80] vs 0.14 [95% CI 0.10-0.21] on low-efficacy), then decreased to a trough in the third. Conversely, ARR steadily increased throughout pregnancy for those on high-efficacy DMT (3rd trimester: 0.42 [95% CI 0.25-0.66] vs 0.12 [95% CI 0.07-0.19] on low-efficacy). Higher efficacy DMT groups were associated with higher ARR in the early postpartum period (high: 0.84 [95% CI 0.62-1.1]; moderate: 0.90 [95% CI 0.65-1.2]; low: 0.47 [95% CI 0.38-0.58]). Preconception use of high and moderate-efficacy DMT and higher preconception ARR were predictors of relapse in pregnancy. But, continuation of high-efficacy DMT into pregnancy was protective against relapse (odds ratio 0.80 [95% CI 0.68-0.94]). Age ≥35 years was associated with reduced odds of relapse.

Conclusions

Women with RRMS treated with moderate or high-efficacy DMT are at greater risk of relapse during pregnancy. Careful pregnancy management, and use of long-acting high-efficacy DMT preconception, or continuing natalizumab into pregnancy, may prevent relapse in pregnancy.

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Author Of 6 Presentations

Biostatistical Methods Poster Presentation

P0018 - Variability of the response to immunotherapy among sub-groups of patients with multiple sclerosis (ID 1239)

Abstract

Background

Our current understanding of demographic and clinical modifiers of the effectiveness of multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies is limited.

Objectives

To assess whether patients’ response to disease modifying therapies (DMT) in MS varies by disease activity (annualised relapse rate, presence of new MRI lesions), disability, age, MS duration or disease phenotype.

Methods

Using the international MSBase registry, we selected patients with MS followed for ≥1 year, with ≥3 visits, ≥1 visit per year. Marginal structural models (MSMs) were used to compare the hazard ratios (HR) of 6-month confirmed worsening and improvement of disability (EDSS), and the incidence of relapses between treated and untreated periods. MSMs were continuously re-adjusted for patient age, sex, pregnancy, date, time from first symptom, prior relapse history, disability and MRI activity.

Results

Among 23 687 patients with relapsing MS, those on DMT experienced 20% greater chance of disability improvement [HR 1.20 (95% CI 1.0-1.5)], 47% lower risk of disability worsening [HR 0.53 (0.39-0.71)] and 51% reduction in relapses [HR 0.49 (0.43-0.55)]. The effect of DMT on relapses and EDSS worsening was attenuated with longer MS duration and higher prior relapse rate. The effect of DMT on EDSS improvement and relapses was more evident in low EDSS categories. DMT was associated with 51% EDSS improvement in patients without new MRI lesions [HR 1.51 (1.00-2.28)] compared to 4% in those with MRI activity [HR 1.04 (0.88-1.24)]. Among 26329 participants with relapsing or progressive MS, DMT was associated with 25% reduction in EDSS worsening and 42% reduction in relapses in patients with relapsing MS [HR 0.75 (0.65-0.86) and HR 0.58 (CI 0.54-62), respectively], while evidence for such beneficial effects of treatment in patients with progressive MS was not found [HR 1.11 (0.91-1.46) and HR 1.16 (0.91-1.46), respectively].

Conclusions

DMTs are associated with reduction in relapse frequency, progression of disability, and increased chance of recovery from disability. In general, the effectiveness of DMTs was most pronounced in subgroups with shorter MS duration, lower EDSS, lower relapse rate and relapsing MS phenotype.

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Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0862 - Disability accrual in primary-progressive & secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (ID 1232)

Abstract

Background

Some cohort studies have reported similar onset age and disability accrual in primary and secondary progressive MS (PPMS, SPMS); others have reported later onset and faster disability accrual in SPMS. Comparisons are complicated by differences in baseline disability and exposure to disease-modifying therapies (DMT), and by lack of a standardized definition of SPMS.

Objectives

We compared hazards of disability accrual in PPMS and SPMS patients from the MSBase cohort using multivariable Cox models, applying validated diagnostic criteria for SPMS (Lorscheider et al., Brain 2016).

Methods

Inclusion required adult-onset progressive MS; ≥ 3 recorded Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores; and, for SPMS, initial records with EDSS ≤ 3 to allow objective identification of SPMS conversion. Phenotypes were subgrouped as active (PPMS-A, SPMS-A) if ≥ 1 progressive-phase relapse was recorded, and inactive (PPMS-N, SPMS-N) otherwise. Disability accrual was defined by sustained EDSS increases confirmed over ≥ 6 months. Hazard ratios (HR) for disability accrual were obtained using Andersen-Gill Cox models, adjusted for sex and time-varying age, disability, visit frequency, and proportion of time on DMT or immunosuppressive therapy. Sensitivity analyses were performed using (1) PPMS and SPMS diagnosed since 1995, and (2) physician-diagnosed SPMS. Cumulative probability of reaching EDSS ≥ 7 (wheelchair required) was assessed (Kaplan-Meier).

Results

5461 patients were included (1257 PPMS-N; 1308 PPMS-A; 1731 SPMS-N; 1165 SPMS-A). Age at progression onset was older in SPMS than PPMS (47.2 ± 10.2, vs. 41.5 ± 10.7 [mean ± SD]), and in the inactive subgroups of each phenotype. Hazard of disability accrual was decreased in SPMS relative to PPMS (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.78–0.92); decreased by proportion of time on DMT (HR 0.99 per 10% increment; 0.98–0.99); and higher in males (1.18; 1.12–1.25). Relative to PPMS-N, hazard was decreased in SPMS-A (0.79; 0.71–0.87) but similar for PPMS-A (1.01; 0.93–1.10) and SPMS-N (0.94; 0.85–1.05). Sensitivity analyses corroborated these results. However, patients with SPMS-A reached EDSS ≥ 7 at younger ages (cumulative probability 30% by 57, vs. 64–66 for SPMS-N, PPMS-A, PPMS-N).

Conclusions

Progressive phase onset is later in SPMS than PPMS. Hazard of disability accrual during the progressive phase is lower in SPMS than PPMS. However, patients with SPMS-A reach wheelchair requirement younger than other progressive phenotypes, reflecting earlier progression onset versus SPMS-N, and greater disability at onset versus PPMS

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Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0876 - High and low efficacy therapy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis after accounting for therapeutic lag. (ID 760)

Abstract

Background

In secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), reduction in the rates of disability accrual after starting disease modifying therapy (DMT) has largely been limited to patients with ongoing inflammatory activity. A delayed treatment effect, termed therapeutic lag, may obscure therapeutic benefits in SPMS.

Objectives

To compare the effect of high and low efficacy DMT on disability outcomes in patients with recently active and inactive SPMS after accounting for therapeutic lag.

Methods

Using data from MSBase, a multinational MS registry, and OFSEP, the French MS registry, we identified patients with SPMS as per a previously validated objective definition. We identified patients treated with high- (natalizumab, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone, ocrelizumab, rituximab, cladribine, fingolimod) or low-efficacy (interferons, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide) DMT after SPMS onset. Based on our previous work, an individualised estimate of duration of therapeutic lag was calculated for each patient. Only events that occurred after the estimated therapeutic lag period were included in the analysis. Propensity score matching was used to select groups with comparable baseline characteristics. Disability and relapse outcomes were compared in paired, pairwise-censored analyses adjusted for visit density.

Results

Of 7359 patients with SPMS, 1000 patients fulfilled the criteria for study inclusion (510 active SPMS, 490 inactive SPMS). For the relapse outcomes, patients with active SPMS treated with high-efficacy DMTs experienced lower probabilities of relapses than low-efficacy DMTs (hazard ratio [HR] 0.7 [95%CI 0.5-0.9], p=0.006). Patients with inactive SPMS had similar probabilities of relapses in the high and low efficacy DMT groups (0.8 [0.6-1.2], p=0.39). No difference in the risk of 6-month sustained disability accumulation, or proportion of patients reaching EDSS>=7, was observed between groups when accounting for therapeutic lag.

Conclusions

The risk of disability accumulation in SPMS seems to be comparable in patients treated with high- and low- efficacy DMT. High efficacy DMT is superior to low efficacy therapy in reducing relapse activity in patients with active SPMS, but not those with inactive SPMS. Pre-treatment inflammatory activity, clinical or radiological, is a treatable target in SPMS which may benefit from higher-efficacy anti-inflammatory therapies.

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Observational Studies Poster Presentation

P0909 - Real-world experience with Ocrelizumab in the MSBase Registry (ID 1559)

Abstract

Background

Ocrelizumab (OCR) is a humanised anti-CD20+ monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), and relapsing forms of MS, including both relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) with relapses.

Objectives

In a real-world setting, to describe 1) baseline characteristics of patients with MS treated with OCR, 2) treatment pathway across lines of therapy up to initiation of OCR, and 3) initial clinical experience in patients with ≥6 months follow-up data from OCR initiation.

Methods

Secondary data analysis using MSBase Registry data including patients with a confirmed diagnosis of MS and started OCR therapy within 3 months prior to or at time of MSBase eligible/initial visit. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze baseline patient characteristics' recorded within 3 months of OCR initiation, including demographics, disease course and duration, prior disease modifying therapies (DMT), and EDSS. Occurrence of relapse was analyzed in patients with ≥6 months follow-up data from OCR initiation.

Results

As of 4th June 2020, MSBase included 2531 patients newly treated with OCR, of whom 1679 had an EDSS evaluation within 3 months of OCR start. There were 1185 patients with RRMS, 236 with SPMS, and 183 with PPMS. Median age at OCR initiation was 41.9 years, 49.5 years, to 50.1 years in RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS, respectively. Mean disease duration from symptom onset up to OCR initiation was longer in SPMS (19.7 years) than in RRMS (10.6 years) and PPMS (9.7 years). OCR was initiated as first line therapy in 17.5%, 5.5%, and 54.2% of RRMS, SPMS, and PPMS patients respectively. Most frequent previous DMT’s in RRMS were fingolimod (25.7%) and natalizumab (23.5%). 693 patients with RRMS had ≥6 months follow-up during OCR exposure. Of these, 643 remained relapse free (93%; 95% CI 86.0, 100.0) over a mean OCR exposure of 1.23 years. The annualized relapse rate (ARR) was 0.08 (95% CI 0.06-0.10), compared to an ARR of 0.85 in the 24 months pre-OCR start. In the overall cohort, treatment persistence at 12 and 24 months was 98.4% (95% CI: 97.3-9.1%) and 92.5% (95%CI 89-95%), respectively.

Conclusions

This study characterizes an international population of patients with RRMS, PPMS, and SPMS newly treated with OCR in a real-world clinical setting. First-line use was uncommon in RRMS and SPMS. During OCR treatment, ARR was below 0.1, and OCR discontinuations were very rare.

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Rehabilitation and Comprehensive Care Poster Presentation

P1098 - Frequency and determinants of falls in persons with multiple sclerosis without a clinical disability (ID 1894)

Speakers
Presentation Number
P1098
Presentation Topic
Rehabilitation and Comprehensive Care

Abstract

Background

Background: Falls are common in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) and lead to destructive results, specifically with increasing disability. However, there is only scarce data investigating falls rate and determinants of falls in pwMS without a clinical disability.

Objectives

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate frequency of falls and related factors in pwMS without a clinical disability.

Methods

Methods: One hundred and four pwMS with no clinical disability (EDSS≤1.5) recruited in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures comprised of the Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW), Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12), Single Leg Stance Test (SLS), Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The number of falls during the last three months was recorded.

Results

Results: Twenty-five percent of the pwMS reported at least one fall in the last three months. The TUG, MSWS-12, and ABC scale were significant determinants of falling adjusted for the EDSS. The ABC scale was the best explanatory outcome for fall status (R2=0.323, p=0.001).

Conclusions

Conclusion: The present findings highlight that falls are an important problem for pwMS, even if they do not have a clinical disability. Therefore, falls prevention strategies are also required in the early stages of the disease in clinical practice. The ABC scale, MSWS-12, and TUG test can be used by the clinicians and researchers to predict potential fallers of the pwMS without a clinical disability.

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Reproductive Aspects and Pregnancy Poster Presentation

P1131 - Pregnancy in a modern day multiple sclerosis cohort: Predictors of postpartum relapse and disability progression (ID 1321)

Abstract

Background

Disease activity has been investigated in pregnant women with RRMS treated with low-efficacy or no therapy. How newer, more efficacious therapies affect relapse and disability progression risk after pregnancy remains understudied.

Objectives

To describe disease activity in a modern pregnancy cohort contrasted with historical cohorts. To determine the predictors of postpartum relapse and the predictors of six-month confirmed disability progression events in a contemporary pregnancy cohort.

Methods

Data were obtained from the MSBase Registry. Term/preterm pregnancies conceived from 2011-2019 (modern cohort) were compared with those conceived between 2005-2010 and pre-2005. Annualised relapse rates (ARR) were calculated for each pregnancy trimester and 12 months either side. Predictors of time-to-relapse postpartum (1st 3 months) and time to 6-month confirmed disability progression event were determined with clustered Cox regression analyses. Breastfeeding duration and time to DMT reinitiation were modelled as time-varying covariates.

Results

We included 1640 pregnancies from 1452 women (modern cohort). Disease-modifying therapy (DMT) used in the year before conception included interferon-beta (n=597), natalizumab (n=219) and fingolimod (n=147). Continuation of DMT up to conception increased over time (31% pre-2005 vs 54% modern cohort). Preconception ARR decreased across epochs (pre-2005: 0·58 [95% CI 0·49-0·70]; 2005-2010: 0·40 [95% CI 0·36-0·45]; modern: 0·29 [95% CI 0·27-0·32]). In all epochs, ARR decreased during pregnancy to reach similar troughs in the 3rd trimester, and rebounded in the 1st 3-months postpartum. Preconception use of high-efficacy DMT predicted early postpartum relapse (hazard ratio (HR) 2.1 [1.4-3.1]); although those on no DMT were also at risk of postpartum relapse, relative to women on low-efficacy DMT (HR 2.7 [1.2-5.9]). Conception EDSS 2, higher preconception and in-pregnancy ARR were also risk factors. DMT reinitiation, particularly of high-efficacy DMT (HR 0.17 [0.07-0.38]), was protective against postpartum relapse. Women who breastfed were less likely to relapse (HR 0.63 [0.42-0.94]). 4.5% of modern pregnancies had confirmed disability progression after delivery. This was predicted by higher pregnancy and postpartum ARR, with postpartum ARR remaining independently predictive in multivariable analysis (HR 1.5 [1.2-2.0]).

Conclusions

The early postpartum period remains a period of vulnerability for disease rebound in women with MS in the modern era. Early DMT reinitiation, particularly with high-efficacy treatment, is protective against postpartum relapse. Confirmed disability progression events after pregnnacy are uncommon in the modern era. Relapse activity is the key driver of these events.

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