Author Of 2 Presentations
P0695 - Burden of disease in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: insights from the CIRCLES study cohort (ID 802)
In patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), relapses may result in cumulative neurological damage and disability. Disease burden may include pain, sensory, cognitive and visual impairment, bowel/bladder dysfunction, weakness or paralysis, and necessitate caregiver support. Prior to 2019, no therapies had received regulatory approval for NMOSD. Thus, off-label immunosuppressive therapies (IST) were commonly used for maintenance therapy. CIRCLES is a prospective, longitudinal, cross-sectional study of disease epidemiology and treatment in North American patients with NMOSD.
This study analyzed real-world disease burden in North American patients with NMOSD enrolled in the CIRCLES study from 2013 to 2019.
Of 629 CIRCLES participants, 523 (83.1%) with anti-aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G-positive (AQP4-IgG+) NMOSD were assessed for disease burden, including vision loss, paralysis, annual relapse rate (ARR) relative to mobility level, and steroid side effects.
Baseline assessment of disability indicated at least partial (136/523, 26.0%) or complete (55/523, 10.5%) dependence on caregiver support. Among patients on off-label maintenance IST and having ≥60 days of on-study follow-up (n = 469), 136 (29.0%) experienced a total of 209 on-study relapses. The unadjusted ARR (95% confidence interval [CI]) by mobility level was 0.17 (0.14–0.20), 0.21 (0.16–0.27), and 0.24 (0.16–0.34) for independent, partially dependent, and completely dependent patients, respectively. Side effects from steroids were assessed in 429 respondents, of whom, 35 (8.2%) had gastroesophageal reflux disease, 30 (6.9%) had depression/anxiety, and 28 (6.5%) had osteoporosis. Of 77 patients with on-study relapses and vision assessment, 24 (31.2%) had vision loss (unadjusted ARR, 0.18 [CI, 0.13–0.24]; P > 0.05 vs. no relapses). Furthermore, of 129 patients with on-study relapses and paralysis assessment, 68 (52.7%) had partial or complete paralysis (unadjusted ARR, 0.23 [CI, 0.19–0.27]; P = 0.03 vs. no relapses).
NMOSD imposes significant disease burden, including vision loss and paralysis resulting in dependence on caregiver support in over one-third of patients. Despite the use of off-label maintenance ISTs, a substantial proportion of patients with NMOSD continue to experience relapses, disability, and neurological damage. These findings underscore the need for safe, effective, and well-tolerated treatments for preventing relapses.
P1082 - Therapeutic Response in Pediatric Neuromyelitis Optics Spectrum Disorder (ID 1820)
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare autoimmune condition which can led to significant disability. Approximately 4% of the NMOSD cases are pediatric onset. At present, there are limited studies that aim at guiding physicians in their treatment choices for NMOSD in children.
To evaluate the effect of different disease modifying therapies (DMT) with respect to attack prevention in children with NMOSD.
Cohort study that included 12 clinical centers participating in the US Network of Pediatric MS Centers. Cases were validated for NMOSD diagnostic criteria and classified via serostatus as AQP4+, MOG+, or double-seronegative (DS). Clinical data, including demographics, attack details, type of initial DMT (rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, IVIg) and neurological visit data were extracted from charts, centrally collected in a database, and analyzed. Treatment response in the three serostatus subgroups was evaluated. Effect of DMTs on annualized relapse rate (ARR) was assessed by negative binomial regression.
111 pediatric patients with NMOSD were identified: 80 AQP4+, 10 MOG+, 14 double seronegative (DS), and 7 with unknown serostatus (94 females and 17 males; 48 white, 47 African American, 13 other races). Mean follow-up duration was 1.9 years (SD±2.2). About 6% of patients were treatment-naive. First-line DMTs varied by serostatus: in the AQP4+ subgroup 42% used rituximab, 16% mycophenolate mofetil, 16% azathioprine, and 8% IVIg. Among MOG+ patients, 13% received rituximab, 13% azathioprine, 13% mycophenolate, and 38% IVIg. Within the DS group, rituximab was used in 21% of cases, azathioprine in 7%, mycophenolate in 21%, and IVIg in 21%. In the unknown serogroup, 33% received rituximab, 17% azathioprine, 0% mycophenolate, and 33% IVIg. The ARR calculated in all the serogroups was 0.25 (95% CI 0.13-0.46) for rituximab, 0.73 (95% CI 0.27-2.00) for azathioprine, 0.40 (95% CI 0.18-0.89) for mycophenolate, and 0.56 (95% CI 0.26-1.20) for IVIg. In the AQP4+ subgroup, the patients started on rituximab showed an ARR of 0.25 (95% CI 0.13-0.48), those on azathioprine an ARR of 0.76 (95% CI 0.24-2.39), those on mycophenolate an ARR 0.43 (95% CI 0.17-1.07), and those on IVIg an ARR of 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-1.55).
This retrospective study showed that rituximab is associated with a lowered annual relapse rate in pediatric NMOSD and in particular in the AQP4+ subgroup.