Author Of 1 Presentation
PS16.05 - Application of deep-learning to NMOSD and unclassified seronegative patients
Current diagnostic criteria of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) allow the diagnosis of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) seropositive patients with limited manifestations, whereas seronegative patients with limited phenotypes remain unclassified and are usually considered as prodromal phases of multiple sclerosis (MS) or different entities themselves. Nowadays, there is great effort to perform an automatic diagnosis of different neurological diseases using deep-learning-based imaging diagnostics, which is a form of artificial intelligence, allowing predicting or making decisions without a priori human intervention.
To provide a deep-learning classification of NMOSD patients with different serological profiles and to compare these results with their clinical evolution.
228 T2- and T1-weighted brain MRIs were acquired from patients with AQP4-seropositive NMOSD (n=85), early MS (n=95), AQP4-seronegative NMOSD (n=11, 3 with anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies) and unclassified double-seronegative limited phenotypes (n=17 idiopathic recurrent optic neuritis [IRON], n=20 idiopathic recurrent myelitis [IRM]). The latter had a clinical re-evaluation after 4-year follow-up. The neural network architecture was based on four 3D convolutional layers. It was trained and validated on MRI scans (n=180) from AQP4-seropositive NMOSD and MS patients. Then, it was applied to AQP4-seronegative NMOSD and double-seronegative patients with limited phenotypes to evaluate their classification as NMOSD or MS in comparison with their clinical follow-up.
The final algorithm discriminated between AQP-4-seropositive NMOSD and MS with an accuracy of 0.95. Forty-seven/48 (97.9%) seronegative patients were classified as NMOSD (one patient with IRON was classified as MS). Clinical follow-up was available in 27/37 (73%) double-seronegative limited phenotypes: one patient evolved to MS, three developed NMOSD and the others did not change phenotype.
Deep-learning may help in the diagnostic work-up of NMOSD. Our findings support the inclusion of AQP4-seronegative patients to the spectrum of NMO and suggest its enlargement to double-seronegative limited phenotypes.
Author Of 2 Presentations
P0200 - Diroximel Fumarate in Patients With Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Interim Safety and Efficacy Results From the Phase 3 EVOLVE-MS-1 Study (ID 435)
Diroximel fumarate (DRF) is a novel oral fumarate for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). DRF is converted to monomethyl fumarate (MMF), the same pharmacologically active metabolite as dimethyl fumarate (DMF). Oral administration of DRF 462mg and DMF 240mg produce bioequivalent MMF exposure and are therefore expected to exhibit comparable efficacy and safety profiles. DRF has an improved gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability profile compared to DMF.
To report interim safety, tolerability, and efficacy outcomes in DRF-treated patients from EVOLVE-MS-1 and to assess GI tolerability in a subgroup of patients who received DMF prior to DRF.
EVOLVE-MS-1 (NCT02634307) is an ongoing, open-label, 96-week study assessing DRF safety, tolerability, and efficacy in adults with relapsing-remitting MS. Patients entered the study either as newly enrolled in the DRF clinical development program or after completing EVOLVE-MS-2 (NCT03093324), a randomized, blinded, phase 3 study in which patients received DRF or DMF over 5 weeks.
As of 2 July 2019, 1051 patients were enrolled, 458 of whom had completed EVOLVE-MS-2. Median DRF exposure was 1.5 (range 0.0-1.9) years. Overall, 44.2% of patients completed the study and 17.3% discontinued treatment; 6.3% discontinued due to AEs and 0.7% due to GI AEs. AEs occurred in 82.1% (863/1051) of patients; 90% (779/863) were mild or moderate in severity. Incidence of GI AEs was 28.4% (299/1051) in the overall population, 21.7% (51/235) in patients with prior DRF treatment, and 21.5% (48/223) in patients with prior DMF treatment. Patients who had experienced GI AEs in EVOLVE-MS-2 (DRF to DRF, 33.6% [79/235]; DMF to DRF, 44.8% [100/223]) had low rates of recurrence (3.4% [8/235] and 3.6% [8/223] for those previously treated with DRF and DMF, respectively) and/or onset of new GI AEs (19.6% [46/235] and 20.6% [46/223], respectively) in EVOLVE-MS-1, regardless of prior treatment group. In the overall population (n=1051), annualized relapse rate was 0.14, and 86.1% of patients were relapse-free. Outcomes in patients who were newly diagnosed or most recently switched from interferon or glatiramer acetate will be presented.
Safety and efficacy results from the ongoing EVOLVE-MS-1 study were consistent with previous findings of DRF and the known benefit-risk profile for DMF. In patients who switched from DMF to DRF, no worsening of tolerability was observed.
Supported by: Biogen
P0247 - Comparison of the 2017 and 2010 revisions of the McDonald criteria in patients with cis suggestive of MS: a multicentre MAGNIMS study (ID 1121)
- P. Preziosa
- A. Meani
- A. Rovira
- S. Mesaros
- O. Ciccarelli
- J. Frederiksen
- C. Enzinger
- F. Barkhof
- C. Gasperini
- E. Fainardi
- W. Brownlee
- J. Drulovic
- X. Montalban
- S. Cramer
- M. Kalil
- M. Hagens
- S. Ruggieri
- G. Dalla Costa
- V. Martinelli
- K. Miszkiel
- M. Tintore
- G. Comi
- I. Dekker
- B. Uitdehaag
- J. Ivanović
- M. Amato
- M. Rocca
In 2017, a revision of the 2010 McDonald criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients has been proposed. However, its validation in a large multicenter cohort of CIS patients is still needed.
To compare the performance of 2017 and 2010 revisions of the McDonald criteria with respect to MS development in a large multicentric cohort of CIS suggestive of MS.
Brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination obtained ≤5 months from CIS onset and a follow-up brain MRI acquired ≤15 months from CIS onset were assessed in 626 CIS patients from 9 European MS centres. The occurrence of a second clinical attack (clinically definite [CD] MS) was recorded. Performances of the 2017 and 2010 revisions of McDonald criteria for dissemination in space (DIS), time (DIT) and DIS plus DIT, also including OCB assessment, were evaluated with a time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Median time to MS diagnosis for the different sets of criteria was estimated through Kaplan-Meier curves.
At the last evaluation (median=61.9 months [IQR=39.1-102.5]), 319 (51%) of 626 patients had CDMS. At 36 months, for DIS, the 2017 MRI criteria had higher sensitivity (0.84 [95% CI=0.79-0.88] vs 0.77 [0.72-0.82]), lower specificity (0.33 [0.28-0.39] vs 0.40 [0.35-0.46]), and similar area under the curve values (AUC, 0.59 [0.55-0.62] for both). The 2017 DIS plus DIT MRI criteria had higher sensitivity (0.68 [0.63-0.74] vs 0.62 [0.56-0.68]), lower specificity (0.55 [0.49-0.61] vs 0.62 [0.56-0.68]), and similar AUC values (0.62 [0.58-0.66] for both). CSF-specific OCB assessment as part of the 2017 criteria revision, increased the sensitivity (0.81 [0.75-0.85]), decreased specificity (0.40 [0.34-0.46]) and preserved AUC values (0.60 [0.56-0.64]). Median time to MS diagnosis was earlier with the 2017 revision compared to the 2010 or CDMS criteria, especially with OCB assessment (2017 revision with OCBs=3.6 months [3.1-4.0], 2017 revision without OCB=11.6 months [7.8-13.5], 2010 revision=13.9 months [12.4-15.3], CDMS=56.3 months [43.8-76.0]).
The 2017 revision of the McDonald criteria showed overall similar accuracy to the 2010 McDonald criteria in predicting CDMS development. The suggested modifications are expected to simplify the clinical use of MRI criteria without reducing accuracy and allow an earlier diagnosis of MS.