Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody (MOG-ab) associated disease (MOGAD) is an inflammatory autoimmune condition of the CNS, clinically resembling seropositive neuromyelitis spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Despite severe pain is one of the most frequent and disabling symptoms in NMOSD, data on pain in MOGAD are scarce and clinical case reports and series often ignore it as a severe symptom.
To assess features of chronic pain, depression, and their impact on health-related quality of life (hr-QoL) in MOG-antibody associated disease (MOGAD).
Patients with MOGAD were identified in the Neuromyelitis Optica Study Group (NEMOS) registry. Data were acquired by a questionnaire, including clinical, demographic, pain (PainDetect, Brief Pain Inventory - short form, McGill Pain Questionnaire - short form), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), and hr-QoL (Short Form-36 Health Survey) items.
Forty-three patients (29 female, 14 male) were included. Twenty-two patients suffered from disease-related pain (11 nociceptive, 8 definite neuropathic, 3 possible neuropathic pain). Patients with neuropathic pain reported higher pain intensity compared to those with nociceptive (pain severity index (PSI)±SD: 5.7±2.0 vs. 2.8±1.3, p=0.003) and more profound impairment of activity of daily living (ADL). Fifteen patients reported spasticity-associated pain, including four with short lasting painful tonic spasms. Twelve patients received pain medication, still suffering from moderate pain (PSI±SD: 4.6±2.3). Only four out of 10 patients with moderate to severe depression took antidepressants. Physical QoL was more affected in pain-sufferers (p<0.001) than in patients without pain, being most severely reduced in patients with neuropathic pain (p=0.016) compared to other pain-sufferers. Pain severity (B=-5.455, SE=0.810, p<0.001), visual impairment (B=-8.163, SE=1.742, p<0.001), and gait impairment (B=-5.756, SE=1.875, p=0.005) were independent predictors of low physical QoL. Depressive state (B=-15.484, SE=2.896, p<0.001) was the only predictor for reduced mental QoL.
Being highly prevalent, pain and depression strongly reduce QoL and ADL in MOGAD. Although treatable, both conditions remain insufficiently controlled in real-life clinical practice