Reproductive Aspects and Pregnancy Poster Presentation

P1131 - Pregnancy in a modern day multiple sclerosis cohort: Predictors of postpartum relapse and disability progression (ID 1321)

  • V. Jokubaitis
  • W. Yeh
  • P. Widyastuti
  • J. Stankovich
  • M. Gresle
  • E. Kubala Havrdová
  • D. Horakova
  • K. Vodehnalova
  • S. Ozakbas
  • S. Eichau Madueño
  • P. Duquette
  • T. Kalincik
  • F. Patti
  • C. Boz
  • M. Terzi
  • B. Yamout
  • J. Lechner-Scott
  • P. Sola
  • O. Skibina
  • M. Barnett, Md
  • M. Onofrj
  • M. Sá
  • P. McCombe
  • P. Grammond
  • R. Ampapa
  • F. Grand'Maison
  • R. Bergamaschi
  • D. Spitaleri
  • V. Van Pesch
  • E. Cartechini
  • S. Hodgkinson
  • A. Soysal
  • A. Saiz
  • T. Uher
  • D. Maimone
  • R. Turkoglu
  • R. Hupperts
  • M. Amato
  • F. Granella
  • C. Oreja-Guevara
  • A. Altintas
  • R. Macdonell
  • T. Castillo-Trivino
  • H. Butzkueven
  • R. Alroughani
  • A. Van Der Walt
  • T. Msbase Study Group
Presentation Number
Presentation Topic
Reproductive Aspects and Pregnancy



Disease activity has been investigated in pregnant women with RRMS treated with low-efficacy or no therapy. How newer, more efficacious therapies affect relapse and disability progression risk after pregnancy remains understudied.


To describe disease activity in a modern pregnancy cohort contrasted with historical cohorts. To determine the predictors of postpartum relapse and the predictors of six-month confirmed disability progression events in a contemporary pregnancy cohort.


Data were obtained from the MSBase Registry. Term/preterm pregnancies conceived from 2011-2019 (modern cohort) were compared with those conceived between 2005-2010 and pre-2005. Annualised relapse rates (ARR) were calculated for each pregnancy trimester and 12 months either side. Predictors of time-to-relapse postpartum (1st 3 months) and time to 6-month confirmed disability progression event were determined with clustered Cox regression analyses. Breastfeeding duration and time to DMT reinitiation were modelled as time-varying covariates.


We included 1640 pregnancies from 1452 women (modern cohort). Disease-modifying therapy (DMT) used in the year before conception included interferon-beta (n=597), natalizumab (n=219) and fingolimod (n=147). Continuation of DMT up to conception increased over time (31% pre-2005 vs 54% modern cohort). Preconception ARR decreased across epochs (pre-2005: 0·58 [95% CI 0·49-0·70]; 2005-2010: 0·40 [95% CI 0·36-0·45]; modern: 0·29 [95% CI 0·27-0·32]). In all epochs, ARR decreased during pregnancy to reach similar troughs in the 3rd trimester, and rebounded in the 1st 3-months postpartum. Preconception use of high-efficacy DMT predicted early postpartum relapse (hazard ratio (HR) 2.1 [1.4-3.1]); although those on no DMT were also at risk of postpartum relapse, relative to women on low-efficacy DMT (HR 2.7 [1.2-5.9]). Conception EDSS 2, higher preconception and in-pregnancy ARR were also risk factors. DMT reinitiation, particularly of high-efficacy DMT (HR 0.17 [0.07-0.38]), was protective against postpartum relapse. Women who breastfed were less likely to relapse (HR 0.63 [0.42-0.94]). 4.5% of modern pregnancies had confirmed disability progression after delivery. This was predicted by higher pregnancy and postpartum ARR, with postpartum ARR remaining independently predictive in multivariable analysis (HR 1.5 [1.2-2.0]).


The early postpartum period remains a period of vulnerability for disease rebound in women with MS in the modern era. Early DMT reinitiation, particularly with high-efficacy treatment, is protective against postpartum relapse. Confirmed disability progression events after pregnnacy are uncommon in the modern era. Relapse activity is the key driver of these events.