Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are commonly associated with articular cartilage injuries, and the presence of these defects influences both short- and long-term outcomes. Multiple variables are predictive of this pathology including time from injury, age, and sex. Revision ACL reconstructions demonstrate higher rates of chondral injury than primary reconstructions. Successful outcomes with multiple treatment options for chondral injuries in conjunction with ACL reconstruction have been reported. On the other hand, high-grade chondral defects have the most consistent and potentially largest negative effect on long-term patient-reported outcomes; however, some natural healing response of chondral injuries following ACL reconstruction. Optimal treatment has been also controversial to expect successful results with several modalities including benign neglect. Recent studies suggest that achieving anatomic graft placement is critical to restoring native ACL function and normal knee kinematics. Knees with grafts that more closely restored normal ACL function, and thus knee motion, experienced less focal cartilage deterioration than did those that experienced abnormal knee motion. Thus, achieving anatomic graft placement is a critical factor in restoring normal knee motion and potentially slowing the development of degenerative changes after ACL reconstruction.
For evaluation of cartilage morphology, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the preferred modality for imaging the pathology. Due to the diverse pathology, complex anatomy, and various injury mechanisms of the knee, the MRI knee protocol and sequences should ensure detection of both soft tissue and osseous structures in detail and with accuracy. Recent advances in MRI techniques allow for improved imaging in the postoperative knee changes including cartilage. As treatment and operative management techniques evolve, understanding the correct application of these advancements in MRI of the knee will prove to be valuable to clinical practice.
This presentation will provide latest topics on ACL and Cartilage, which could lead to better strategic planning to prevent osteoarthritis.
The main topic are as follows:
1. How chondral lesions affect the symptoms and outcomes of patients with ACL injury.
2. Natural healing course of chondral lesions in patients with ACL injury.
3. Imaging of cartilage condition following ACL injury and reconstruction
4. How ACL reconstruction affects articular surface and the progression of osteoarthritis.
5. Emerging technologies to treat patients with the combined pathologies.
6. Future perspective.
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We thank Dr. Christian Latterman, Takashi Nishii and Shuji Horibe for substantial discussion in preparation.