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Displaying One Session

01/01/1970

01. Living with parasites
Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
01. Living with parasites

THE IMPACT OF SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI ON HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG INDIVIDUALS LIVING IN ENDEMIC AREAS IN UGANDA (ID 1446)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
17:00 - 17:15
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Onsite

Abstract

Introduction

Schistosomiasis was responsible for 1.64 million (1.04–2.64) disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) globally in 2019. Despite the high burden, the complex relationship between infection intensities, co-morbidities and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains poorly understood. Reduced HRQoL affects education and productivity outcomes, and hampers economic development of endemic countries. This study characterises the HRQoL of individuals living with Schistosoma mansoni and co-infections in different risk areas.

Methods

A health survey was conducted in Uganda to identify S. mansoni infection intensities, schistosomiasis-related symptoms, health conditions (e.g., anaemia) and HRQoL scores (EQ-5D). Participant infection status was quantified using Kato-Katz and point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen tests from two endemic settings (high-low), as well as uninfected participants. This allows the association of infection data with extensive health, socioeconomic data and HRQoL scores. Spearman's correlation coefficients are used to evaluate the relationship between HRQoL responses and the EQ-5D value set recently published for Uganda. Multivariate regression models are used to explore the effect of infection in utility decrements, by controlling for socioeconomic and health factors.

Results

S. mansoni parasitological, health and socioeconomic data analysed will show the impact of infection on HRQoL, which is crucial to understand the effect of infection on daily activities.

Conclusions

We will present key parameters to inform economic evaluations of schistosomiasis control intervention, and an improved understanding of the societal impact of S. mansoni infections, including Kato-Katz negative/low intensity infections.

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01. Living with parasites

ENVIRONMENTAL PARASITES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH POVERTY IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. (ID 1047)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
17:15 - 17:30
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Onsite

Abstract

Introduction

Many parasites that infect humans are acquired from contaminated soil. These pathogens are also prevalent in communities of poverty in the Southern U.S. Our study investigates the environmental contamination of gastrointestinal parasites in the Southern U.S by determining the contamination rate and burden of each parasite in five Southern United States and their association with poverty.

Methods

Approximately 500 soil samples were collected from public parks and private residences in Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas. A novel technique utilizing parasite floatation, filtration, and bead-beating was applied to concentrate and extract parasite DNA from samples, followed by a multi-parallel qPCR-based molecular method.

Results

Overall parasite contamination of soil varied between communities with different poverty rates. These parasites include Blastocystis, Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis, Giardia intestinalis, Ancylostoma species, Necator americanus, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed the human pathogen T. trichiura.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates the environmental contamination of parasites and their relationship with poverty rates in Southern U.S. communities. People living in poverty are marginalized and exposed to poor sanitation and environmental stressors that can lead to disease.

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01. Living with parasites

HUMAN SOCIAL CONDITIONS PREDICT THE RISK OF EXPOSURE TO ZOONOTIC PARASITES IN COMPANION ANIMALS IN EAST AND SOUTHEAST ASIA (ID 1029)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
17:30 - 17:45
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Onsite

Abstract

Introduction

To date, there is a dearth of information on the risk associated with pet ownership for the transmission of parasites on a large scale in Asia, despite a recent surge in animals has been observed across the continent.

Methods

We explored the nature and extent of zoonotic internal (endo-) and external (ecto-) parasites and arthropod-borne zoonotic pathogens in 2,381 client-owned dogs and cats living in metropolitan areas of eight countries in East and Southeast Asia using a panel of reliable diagnostic tests, and then undertook extensive statistical analyses to define predictors of exposure to zoonotic pathogens.

Results

Nearly half (45%) of the dogs and cats sampled harboured at least one of > 40 pathogens detected, with >85% of these animals living in highly urbanised metropolitan areas. We highlight the influence of human life expectancy and the neutering status of the animals, which reflect increased living standards through access to education and human and veterinary health care, to be both strongly associated with exposure to zoonotic parasites.

Conclusions

An increase in the number of veterinary medicine curricula and an enhanced commitment of local authorities to establish prevention campaigns against zoonotic pathogens will play a crucial role in alleviating the impact of these diseases in humans in Asia. This will necessitate an integrated approach of local and international authorities to implement educational programs, particularly in resource-poor areas, where a negative synergistic effect of limited veterinary education and a low standard of living is expected to foster an increased exposure of people to zoonotic infections.

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01. Living with parasites

ENVIRONMENTAL PREVALENCE, DISTRIBUTION AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CANINE SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS IN URBAN PARKS ACROSS AUSTRALIA (ID 588)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
17:45 - 17:50
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Onsite

Abstract

Introduction

Dog parks provide an ideal urban space where dogs and their owners can exercise, play, and socialize in a safe environment. However, these parks can also increase the risk of exposure to a series of infectious agents including canine soil-transmitted helminths (cSTHs) such as hookworms, roundworms, Strongyloides spp., and Trichuris vulpis, which are endemic to Australia.

Methods

In this study, we collected 1581 canine faecal samples in 190 urban parks across Australia and subjected these to faecal floatation and qPCRs to detect a range of cSTHs.

Results

In total, 42.6% of the parks sampled were contaminated with at least one species of cSTHs, with hookworms being the most prevalent parasites (10.3%) followed by Trichuris spp. (1.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (1.2%).

Conclusions

This is the first large-scale study investigating the contamination of urban parks with cSTHs in Australia, and the first nation-wide study to demonstrate the occurrence of Strongyloides spp. in canine faecal samples from urban areas of Australia. This study reveals a high rate of contamination with cSTHs in dog parks in urban Australia, most of which having proven zoonotic potential. Preventive measures, including awareness-raising educational programs promoting responsible pet ownership, should be encouraged to minimise the health risks associated with cSTHs to both dogs and humans.

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01. Living with parasites

DIROFILARIA IMMITIS IN DOGS, CATS AND HUMANS IN GRAN CANARIA (SPAIN), 1994-2020: CHANGING DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN A HYPERENDEMIC ISLAND (ID 877)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
17:50 - 17:55
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Onsite

Abstract

Introduction

Dirofilaria immitis is the etiological agent of heartworm disease, a vector-borne disease transmitted by the bite of vector mosquitoes. This parasite mainly affects dogs and cats; also, humans can be infected, being a zoonotic disease. This study establishes the evolution of prevalence and distribution patterns of heartworm in dogs, cats and inhabitants of Gran Canaria (Spain), a hyperendemic island, based on data from published studies as well as unpublished data.

Methods

A total of 5841 dogs, 1203 cats, and 1604 humans were analyzed for detection of antigens (dogs) or antibodies (cats and humans) against D. immitis, over a 26-year period (1994-2020) in Gran Canaria.

Results

There is a downward trend in the prevalences of the 3 species studied, although no significant differences were found in the last 5 (2015-2020) years. The prevalences in dogs varied from 67.02% (1994) to 15.81% (2020), from 18.66% (2008) to 8.27% (2020) in humans, and from 33% (2010) to 17.2% (2020) in cats.

Conclusions

The descending pattern demonstrates the success of the implementation of control and prophylaxis measures in Gran Canaria since 1994. The end of this pattern observed since 2015 is probably due to the persistence of untreated reservoirs (mainly hound dogs used for hunting and kept in poor hygienic-sanitary conditions). The results also show the zoonotic importance of this disease and, therefore, the need for surveillance and control measures.

This research was supported by Agencia Canaria de Investigación, Innovación y Sociedad de la Información (ACIISI), Canary Islands, Spain. ProID2017010111.

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01. Living with parasites

DYNAMICS OF HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN EPIDEMIC AND EPIZOOTIC SYSTEMS OF BANGLADESH (ID 52)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
17:55 - 18:00
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Onsite

Abstract

Introduction

In view of a growing international commitment to control human helminths infection, there is an urgent need to intensify the detection of the cases from reservoir hosts. This study was performed to reveal the dynamics of helminthic infections in the epidemic and epizootic systems of Bangladesh with the concept of One Health.

Methods

We employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods including cryomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, sedation, culture, molecular approaches, and interviews. Specimens (human stools, animal feces, and soils) were collected from the three ecological areas in Bangladesh.

Results

The ecological zone shared by host communities is rich in diversity of helminths, of which some are extensively shared across the host species. Humans, animals, and soils showed an overall prevalence of 31.7%, 59.3%, and 52.5% respectively. Diverse species of helminths include Ascaris, Trichuris, Capillaria, hookworms, Hymenolepis, Enterobius, Rhabditis. Toxocara, Spirometra, opisthorchiid, Fasciola, Paramphistomum, roundworms, taeniid were detected. For the first time in Bangladesh, nematodes, i.e., Rhabditis sp. from human, Agriostomum sp. from goat, Ancylostoma caninum from soil, and cestode Spirometra decipiens was reported from lion. This study also developed a context-based method for geohelminths recovery and the method proved feasible in terms of field applicability and egg recovery rate.

Conclusions

This study provides the overall infection status of helminths in humans, animals, and soils from similar ecological settings. This pattern would be helpful for understanding helminth propagation, environmental persistence, and transmission.

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01. Living with parasites

PRE-RECORDED: GEOSTATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE CYSTICERCOSIS: RESULTS OF A LARGE-SCALE STUDY IN 60 VILLAGES IN BURKINA FASO (ID 1316)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
18:00 - 18:05
Presentation Icon
Pre-Recorded Presentation
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Pre-Recorded

Abstract

Introduction

Cysticercosis (CC) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Taenia solium which has been observed to cluster spatially. Geostatistical models can predict outcome prevalence at unsampled locations, and thus guide prevention and control strategies. The goal of this study was to fit, for the first time, a geostatistical model to human CC data.

Methods

Baseline data from a randomized control trial (EFECAB) conducted in 60 villages in Burkina Faso were used. A generalized linear geostatistical model (GLGM) was run, with active human CC (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA) as outcome and a set of environmental variables linked with infection transmission and spread as explanatory variables for the spatial distribution.

Results

The final GLGM retained precipitation, distance to the nearest river and night land temperatures as predictors for active human CC. The range of spatial correlation was estimated at 45 meters for the participant-level data, while it was 28.2 km using the village-level data. The prediction maps unravelled large areas with human CC prevalence estimates of at least 4% in the south-east, extreme south, and north-west of the study area.

Conclusions

This study shows the merits of geostatistical models for identifying target areas for intervention. Future studies should improve sampling strategies to ensure appropriate characterisation of the spatial variability.

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01. Living with parasites

PRE-RECORDED: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY OF SOIL PARASITES AND SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM INFECTION IN EGGUA, NIGERIA (ID 1057)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
18:05 - 18:10
Presentation Icon
Pre-Recorded Presentation
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Pre-Recorded

Abstract

Introduction

This study assessed the risk associated with environmental contamination by parasites in urinary schistosomiasis endemic areas.

Methods

Urogenital schistosomiasis surveys were conducted in some rural communities in Yewa North Local Government Area, Ogun State between August 2012 and June 2016. Soil samples were examined for the presence of STH infective stages by microscopy. Geo-coordinates of each soil sampling point with the prevalence data for Schistosoma haematobium and STH infections were imported into ArcGIS 9.3 to map areas at risk.

Results

Out of 953 urine samples screened for schistosome eggs 253(26.5%) were positive. All the communities were classified as moderate risk areas (prevalence < 50%) for schistosomiasis. Also, 79/143 (55.2%) soil samples screened were positive for STH eggs and larvae. The STH identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (49.0%), Hookworm species (16.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (32.2%) and Trichuris trichiura (3.5%). The prevalence of single and mixed contaminations was 16.8% and 38.5% respectively. All the communities were high risk areas (prevalence > 50%) for contracting STH infections.

Conclusions

Faecal contamination is a major factor aiding the continuous cycle of infection in this endemic zone; and may help to estimate the extent of the risk of schistosomiasis in STH endemic areas.

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01. Living with parasites

TRANSMISSION OF MALARIA IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO (2019-2021)- RECOLLECTIONS FROM THE FIELD (ID 547)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
18:10 - 18:15
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Onsite

Abstract

Introduction

The transmission of malaria in Mexico is concentrated in well-defined foci mainly on the Pacific coast. In the southwestern region of the state of Chihuahua, the municipality of Batopilas de Manuel Gómez Morín accounts for over half of all malaria reported cases in the state. The natural characteristics and sociodemographic conditions of the region have presented a historical challenge for the application and monitoring of health and vector control programs. We constituted a multidisciplinary research group with the idea to maximize the efforts and available human and economical resources to study malaria and other vector-borne diseases in the region.

Methods

"Entomovet" is a multidisciplinary group formed by researchers and UG/PG students from the two local state universities, with the participation of other research centers and universities, as well as the state of Chihuahua's Health Services through the Epidemiology Deputy Direction and the Vector-borne Diseases Program.

Results

Two field trips were carried out in Batopilas in 2019 and 2021. Proposed activities were presented to the state and local health authorities as well as to other relevant actors on-site. Immature and adult mosquitoes were collected along with personnel from the Vector Control Group. Other activities have included free veterinary services and screening for ectoparasites, science outreach activities for local children, and other vector collections.

Conclusions

Multidisciplinary activities in the region have proven to give a wider perspective of the conditions of the population that live in endemic areas of transmission. Particularly, the social, demographic, historical, and cultural characteristics must be considered when integrating health and malaria control programs.

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01. Living with parasites

FACTORS AFFECTING SPARGANOSIS INFECTION IN MEDIUM-SIZED CARNIVORES IN POLAND (ID 1151)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
18:15 - 18:20
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Onsite

Abstract

Introduction

Sparganosis is water- and foodborne disease caused by larvae (spargana) of Spirometra tapeworm. Previous studies have confirmed its presence in 7 carnivore species in NE Poland. The aim of this study was to: 1) investigate what biological (host sex and age) and environmental factors (diet and habitat humidity) influence the prevalence and intensity of infection.

Methods

In total, 299 raccoon dogs and 106 European badgers were necropsied. Spargana found in subcutaneous tissue were isolated, counted, and genetically analyzed to confirm the species. The age of animals was determined using relative width of the pulp cavity and dental cementum annuli of lower canines. The diet was determined on the basis of stomach content analysis.

Results

The overall infection prevalence for badgers and raccoon dogs was similar (32% and 30% respectively). Host sex and diet did not influence the infection intensity in both species. Probability of infection was higher in more humid habitats. It also increased with age of badgers, but not the raccoon dogs.

Conclusions

The results show that both, biological and environmental factors may influence rate of Spirometra infection in carnivores. Among them, wet habitats (where the 1st stage larvae develop in Copepods), diversified sources of infection, and duration of host-parasite co-evolution may play an important role in spread and dynamic of Spirometra infection.

The study was financed by the National Science Centre project no. 2016/21/B/NZ8/02429.

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01. Living with parasites

RIBOSOMAL AND MITOCHONDRIAL GENETIC MARKERS FOR MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF ASCARIDIDAE, ONCHOCERCIDAE AND ANCYLOSTOMATIDAE WORMS: HOW USEFUL ARE THEY? (ID 1225)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
18:20 - 18:25
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Onsite

Abstract

Introduction

Parasitic nematodes of the families Ascarididae, Ancylostomatidae, and Onchocercidae cause a great impact on human and animal populations around the globe. Molecular methods have facilitated taxa differentiation, phylogenetic analyses, and species delimitation. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of different molecular markers for species discrimination prospecting to identify worms not classifiable by morphometrical means.

Methods

Ribosomal (ITS-1, ITS-2, 18S) and mitochondrial (cox1,12S,16S) gene sequences of nematodes from the NCBI database were aligned and phylogenetically analyzed using Bayesian Inference algorithms. Additionally, pairwise identity matrices and violin plots were calculated.

Results

Analyses of the 18S gene in the three families demonstrated poor resolution for species-level differentiation with a minimum pairwise identity of 95.9%. The ITS-1 and ITS-2 presented the lowest inter-species similarity with 63.3% and 51.5%. Analyses of the cox1, 16S and 12S genes showed minimum inter-species similarities of 80.5%, 78.7% and 76.8%, respectively.

Conclusions

In conclusion, ribosomal genes are not recommended for the identification of a worm from these families due to their poor resolution (18S) or high variability (ITS-1, ITS-2). The use of mitochondrial markers showed better results; however, the limited number of 12S and 16S sequences in databases makes phylogenetic analysis challenging and their current use may not be practical for the identification of unknown specimens.

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01. Living with parasites

RTAPAS: AN R PACKAGE TO TRACK CO-EVOLUTION OF HOSTS AND PARASITES (ID 897)

Session Type
01. Living with parasites
Date
08/23/2022
Session Time
17:00 - 18:30
Room
Hall B3.M5+6
Lecture Time
18:25 - 18:30
Onsite or Pre-Recorded
Onsite

Abstract

Introduction

Host-parasite (HP) interactions involve the association of two organisms over a long evolutionary time. Thus, the diversification of host and parasites is rarely independent. Phylogenetic congruence quantifies the extent to which each node and branch-length in a host phylogenetic tree maps on a corresponding position in the parasite phylogenetic tree.

Methods

We developed an R package, Rtapas, that provides a new framework to map phylogenetic congruence (or incongruence) on a tanglegram, thereby providing insight into cophylogenetic patterns across the HP evolutionary history. To test the effectiveness of the package, we applied the analysis to a community of 130 species of small mammals and 202 species of flea parasites.

Results

A tanglegram reflecting the congruence of the interactions between mammals and fleas its produced. The degree of congruence in hosts is concentrated in clades, whereas in fleas it is distributed across the entire tree. This suggest that within a flea family some clades exhibit some phylogenetic conservatism in relation to their hosts, whereas other clades do not, probably due to host switching.

Conclusions

Rtapas provides an efficient tool to gauge large and complex HP evolutionary associations. This R package facilitates and speeds up cophylogenetic analysis between two evolutionary histories, as it can handle large phylogenies reducing computational time.

Project PID2019-104908GB-I00 (PRE2020-095070) funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033.

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