This symposium will highlight novel research on the role of sex in determining the neurobiological basis, as well as cognitive and emotional aspects of certain neuropsychiatric disorders. Dr. Bangasser will discuss sex differences in stress responses and will focus on the role of CRF in arousal and attention. Dr. Dalla will present sex differences in animal models of depression with a focus on neuroestrogens and neuroplasticity. Dr. Srivastava will show how estradiol induces long-lasting changes in synaptic plasticity via the rapid regulation of local protein translation in the hippocampus. Dr. Milad will present neuroimaging data on the effect of estradiol on neural nodes, as well as computational modelling, in relation to fear and anxiety. Speakers are two women and two men, from four different countries/states, experts on sex differences with complementary, pioneer work on acute brain slices (Srivastava), rodents (Dalla and Bangasser) and humans (Milad) with a wide range of approaches, such as behavioral, molecular, neurochemical, neuroimaging, computational and -omics. The chairperson, Dr. Dalla, is one of the few neuroscientists in Europe promoting sex-oriented research worldwide, has recently led a Special Issue on Sex Differences at Eur. J. of Neuroscience and this symposium will further contribute to this aim. Moreover, it will enhance our understanding of the etiology of disorders, such as depression, anxiety and PTSD, as well as their sex-specific treatment.