Priyen Shah (United Kingdom)

Imperial College London Paediatric Infectious Diseases

Author Of 1 Presentation

THE IDENTIFICATION AND SUBSEQUENT CROSS-PLATFORM VALIDATION OF A HOST GENE EXPRESSION SIGNATURE FOR DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN MIS-C AND OTHER INFECTIOUS AND INFLAMMATORY DISEASES

Date
Wed, 11.05.2022
Session Time
13:40 - 15:10
Session Type
Joint Symposium
Room
BANQUETING HALL
Lecture Time
14:58 - 15:06

Abstract

Backgrounds:

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) occurs several weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection with symptoms including fever, shock and multiorgan failure. Clinical features of MIS-C overlap with Kawasaki Disease (KD), bacterial, and viral infections, making accurate diagnosis challenging. Host genes, measurable through whole blood transcriptomics, are an alternative tool for diagnosing infectious and inflammatory diseases.

Methods

Patients with MIS-C, KD, bacterial, and viral infections were recruited to the EU-funded PERFORM and DIAMONDS studies and the NIH-funded PREVAIL study. Patients were phenotyped using a standardised algorithm. Genome wide RNA sequencing of whole blood was undertaken, and feature selection was performed to identify a diagnostic signature for distinguishing between MIS-C and other infectious and inflammatory conditions. The expression levels of the genes identified were measured using RT-qPCR assays in an independent validation cohort.

Results:

Through feature selection and differential expression analysis, 11 genes with diagnostic potential were identified and taken forward into cross-platform validation using RT-qPCR. With up to 11 genes, it was possible to distinguish between MIS-C vs. KD, bacterial, and viral infections with high accuracy, with an AUC of 92.9% (95% CI: 88.2%-97.6%) in the validation cohort. The diagnostic gene signature retained its high performance when tested within the groups separately in the validation cohort: MIS-C vs. bacterial infections (AUC: 94.6%), vs. viral infections (AUC: 93.1%), and vs. KD (AUC: 89.8%).

Conclusions/Learning Points:

Despite the clinical similarities between MIS-C and other infectious and inflammatory conditions, there are key differences in gene expression profiles that can be used in diagnostic contexts. It will be necessary for the genes reported here to undergo further validation prior to their development into tests with clinical utility.

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