The optimal treatment for primary gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unclear. The treatment for primary gastric DLBCL is in accordance with the principle of treatment for general DLBCL. We aimed to evaluate the treatment outcomes and pattern of failure in primary gastric DLBCL.
Between April 2001 and November 2018, 120 patients with stage I–IV primary gastric DLBCL were retrospectively reviewed in this study. All patients had been in complete remission after receiving rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). Ninety patients (75%) were treated with R-CHOP alone, and the other 30 patients (25%) underwent R-CHOP with local treatment for gastric lesions. Twelve patients (10%) underwent gastrectomy, and 18 patients (15%) received consolidation radiotherapy (RT).
The median follow-up time was 49 (range, 5 to 197) months. The 5-year locoregional failure-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 85.6%, 86.5%, 83.4%, and 90.3%, respectively. During the follow-up, 17 patients (14.2%) experienced disease recurrence. Only 3 patients developed distant metastasis without locoregional failure (LRF). All except two cases of LRF included gastric failure. There was no LRF in patients who received R-CHOP with local treatment. On multivariate analysis, poor performance status was an independent prognostic factor for LRFS, and multiple gastric lesions influenced LRFS, DMFS, DFS, and OS.
The main pattern of initial failure is LRF, especially in the stomach in patients with primary gastric DLBCL. Gastric local treatment such as consolidation RT can effectively prevent gastric failure. Therefore, gastric local treatment should be considered for patients at high risk of LRF, such as multiple gastric lesions.
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All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.