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URBAN GREEN SPACE COOLING POTENTIAL IN TROPICAL CLIMATE CONDITION
The expansion of urban areas due to urbanization and industrialization has led to significant loss of forest areas, and green spaces play a crucial role in reducing the Urban Heat Island effect. It is important to ensure the city is developed in an ecologically healthy and sustainable with the inclusion of green spaces such as urban parks within the urban planning, which contributes to the wellbeing of urban dwellers through the provision of ecosystem services such as microclimate regulations. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the microclimate improvements from the urban parks in a hot and humid country such as Malaysia. To identify the microclimatic importance of urban green areas, we examined the microclimate conditions and vegetation structure in urban parks of two different urban land zones of the central business district and suburban areas. The findings of this study will be able to provide an insight into the microclimate conditions and the influence of vegetation structures such as tree DBH, tree height and canopy cover in microclimate regulations. These findings further explore the contribution of the urban parks in which can be used in decision making of the future greening strategies, specifically in the matters related to urban cooling from the green infrastructure in improving the quality of life and livability of urban citizens.
WORKING WITH NATURE- BIO-REMEDIATION
WORKING WITH NATURE – BIO-REMEDIATION
The relationship between urban development and water is inextricably linked. The very first known developed cities in the world with drains, bathing areas, and a possible well were the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, home to this region now known as Pakistan.
The urban water ecosystem is a core foundation for urban health. Ecosystem health is directly associated with the economic development of the region and therefore the quality of urban residents’ lives. Evaluating the state of an urban water ecosystem is crucial for the development of an ecologically civilized city.
Human diversion from natural ways to manage the organic used matter and used water caused significant damage to the environment surrounding human settlements. Nature’s self-healing mechanism demonstrated that Bio-remediation techniques or living organisms can help resolve managing used matters, reusing them efficiently to be a part of Mother Nature's closed-loop.
In recent times, the coalescence of different pressures like agriculture, water abstraction, population growth, increasing urbanization, drought, reduced run-off, water quality deterioration has put a major strain on water supply locally and globally.
Pakistan is facing severe water scarcity in the near future. Contamination of limited freshwater quantity through human contaminated water developed pressure to find a cost-effective and sustainable way to reclaim used-water for alternative uses to secure remaining freshwater for human consumption.
Since 1997, various mechanisms were explored to reclaim used-water. Due to poor economic conditions to invest in this sector to move towards water security did not materialize. The Bio-remediation of used-water for reclamation under NEQS (National Environment Quality Standards) was discovered when the lead was given to mother nature. This led to indigenous low-cost solutions where more than two hundred Bio-remediation models were developed. The bio-remedial techniques proved successful in urban and rural areas. This was achieved by working hand in hand with corporate, public, and development sector organizations.
With the help of other bio-remedial forces like microbial consortia, aquatic plants, etc., it is learned that biological engineering contributes to managing urban and rural used-waters.
APPLYING INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT THROUGH PLANNING AND BUILDING APPROVALS
This paper examines the integration of Integrated Water Management (IWM) methods for smaller scale urban redevelopment as part of the planning and building approvals systems in Adelaide, Australia. Integrated water management takes a systems thinking approach to managing urban stormwater, considering multiple objectives of stormwater runoff quality, peak discharge flowrates, stormwater volume reduction and water efficiency.
As the area of impermeable surfaces connected to a drainage system increases, additional burden is placed on existing infrastructure. Existing pipe systems are designed for a specific purpose, such as for drainage for low density housing. As an area develops into higher-density development, and more impervious surfaces are connected, piping systems no longer function well and are more frequently flooded. Additional stormwater runoff volumes and increased flooding frequency scour downstream watercourses and pollute coastal environments.
This project is facilitating broad scale adoption across the city of strategies to reduce this impact, as new redevelopment and urban densification projects will be required to include IWM considerations as part of the development design process. Integrated water management in new developments has multiple social, economic and environmental benefits including:
• reduced supply costs for potable water where retention storages are incorporated for supplying toilets, hot water services, laundry washing and cold-water outlets, and irrigation systems
• improved effectiveness and extended life of existing stormwater infrastructure
• reduced flood risk and resultant damage
• improved stormwater quality to protect coastal environments from pollution
• protecting the integrity of urban water courses from erosion
• reduced impervious surfaces resulting in reduced heat and stormwater runoff
• creating greener urban environments with high visual amenity.
Adelaide is a world leader in the widespread adoption of sustainable technologies including in integrated water management. This project undertook broad stakeholder engagement and developed online IWM design support through guidelines, education and engineering tools (https://www.watersensitivesa.insitewater.com/) for development projects. This will result over time in the widespread adoption of IWM practices for projects that are seeking planning or building development approvals.
ALL-INCLUSIVE - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF WARSAW’ 2018
An environmental study is the preliminary stage of spatial policy development in Poland. It describes in detail the environmental conditions. During its evolution, the scope and principles of the environmental studies have been adapted to the changing circumstances but not always kept up with the emerging challenges. Environmental studies performed so far have focused on the characteristics of the natural environment and the determination of the resulting limitations. They were usually formulated in the form of restrictions and provisions relating to areas with natural functions. These provisions practically did not refer to the natural functions improvement of built-up areas. Presented Environmental Study of Warsaw goes far beyond the standard procedure. Apart from the elements of the natural environment features, a dynamic approach was presented by indicating the climatic, hydrological, biological and geodynamic processes. In provisions development the concept of green infrastructure for which ecosystem services have been mapped were used. Separately formulated guidelines relates to: (1) the entire city, (2) areas with special natural conditions due to air exchange and regeneration system, protection of biodiversity, erosion and flood control, (3) other non-built-up areas (working landscape), and (4) built-up areas. The provisions are formulated also for built-up areas, so far omitted in environmental documents in Poland. They were divided according to their share of green areas as well as runoff curve number (CN) used to forecast the runoff of hydrological processes or infiltration related to land use and soil type. Guidelines are presented in the form of pictorial drawings as a best practices catalogue to be used in spatial planning documents. This form is more understandable for professionals and broader audience. The proposed set of guidelines is flexible - they can be easily adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing both in dense downtown areas and on the outskirts of the city. Pictorial drawings show various options, depending on the characteristics of the place, one can choose the right solutions to control and maintain the natural processes in the city. This is proactive and not reactive (based on limitations) approach.